Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Oliver W. Frauenfeld x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Liang Chen and Oliver W. Frauenfeld

Abstract

Historical temperature variability over China during the twentieth century and projected changes under three emission scenarios for the twenty-first century are evaluated on the basis of a multimodel ensemble of 20 GCMs from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and two observational datasets. Changes relative to phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) are assessed, and the performance of individual GCMs is also quantified. Compared with observations, GCMs have substantial cold biases over the Tibetan Plateau, especially in the cold season. The timing and location of these biases also correspond to the greatest disagreement among the individual models, indicating GCMs’ limitations in reproducing climatic features in this complex terrain. The CMIP5 multimodel ensemble shows better agreement with observations than CMIP3 in terms of the temperature biases. Both CMIP3 and CMIP5 capture the climatic warming over the twentieth century. However, the magnitude of the annual mean temperature trends is underestimated. There is also limited agreement in the spatial and seasonal patterns of temperature trends over China. Based on six statistical measures, four individual models—the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, low resolution (MPI-ESM-LR), Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2), Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, Earth System Model (MIROC-ESM), and Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4)—best represent surface air temperature variability over China. The future temperature projections indicate that the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP 4.5 scenarios exhibit a gradual increase in annual temperature during the twenty-first century at a rate of 0.60° and 0.27°C (10 yr)−1, respectively. As the lowest-emission mitigation scenario, RCP 2.6 projects the lowest rate of temperature increase [0.10°C (10 yr)−1]. By the end of the twenty-first century, temperature is projected to increase by 1.7°–5.7°C, with larger warming over northern China and the Tibetan Plateau.

Full access
Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Robert E. Davis, and Michael E. Mann

Abstract

A new and distinctly interdecadal signal in the climate of the Pacific Ocean has been uncovered by examining the coupled behavior of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. This interdecadal Pacific signal (IPS) of ocean–atmosphere interaction exhibits a highly statistically significant interdecadal component yet contains little to no interannual (El Niño scale) variability common to other Pacific climate anomaly patterns. The IPS thus represents the only empirically derived, distinctly interdecadal signal of Pacific Ocean SST variability that likely also represents the true interdecadal behavior of the Pacific Ocean–atmosphere system. The residual variability of the Pacific’s leading SST pattern, after removal of the IPS, is highly correlated with El Niño anomalies. This indicates that by simply including an atmospheric component, the leading mode of Pacific SST variability has been decomposed into its interdecadal and interannual patterns. Although the interdecadal signal is unrelated to interannual El Niño variability, the interdecadal ocean–atmosphere variability still seems closely linked to tropical Pacific SSTs. Because prior abrupt changes in Pacific SSTs have been related to anomalies in a variety of physical and biotic parameters throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and because of the persistence of these changes over several decades, isolation of this interdecadal signal in the Pacific Ocean–atmosphere system has potentially important and widespread implications to climate forecasting and climate impact assessment.

Full access
Rodrigo J. Bombardi, James L. Kinter III, and Oliver W. Frauenfeld

Abstract

The Rainy and Dry Seasons (RADS) dataset, a new compilation of precipitation statistics available to the public, is described. The dataset contains the dates of onset and demise of the rainy season (one date per year), the duration of the rainy and dry seasons, and the accumulated precipitation during the rainy and dry seasons. The methodology for detecting the characteristics of the rainy season is based solely on precipitation data. RADS was developed from multiple global gridded daily precipitation datasets [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 1998–2015; Climate Prediction Center Unified Gauge-Based Analysis of Global Daily Precipitation (CPC_UNI), 1979–present; and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), 1980–present] and therefore shares the spatial resolution, temporal range, and limitations of the original precipitation datasets. This is the first free public dataset of the characteristics of the rainy and dry seasons created using a consistent methodology across the globe, including all major monsoonal regions. We expect that the RADS dataset will contribute to our understanding of the sources of variability of the timing of rainy seasons (on local to regional scales) and monsoons (on large scales) and their impacts on water resource management and other aspects of geosciences and human activities.

Open access
Anita D. Rapp, Alexander G. Peterson, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Steven M. Quiring, and E. Brendan Roark

Abstract

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar precipitation features are analyzed to understand the role of storm characteristics on the seasonal and diurnal cycles of precipitation in four distinct regions in Costa Rica. The distribution of annual rainfall is highly dependent on the stratiform precipitation, driven largely by seasonal increases in stratiform area. The monthly distribution of stratiform rain is bimodal in most regions, but the timing varies regionally and is related to several important large-scale features: the Caribbean low-level jet, the ITCZ, and the Chorro del Occidente Colombiano (CHOCO) jet. The relative importance of convective precipitation increases on the Caribbean side during wintertime cold air surges. Except for the coastal Caribbean domain, most regions show a strong diurnal cycle with an afternoon peak in convection followed by an evening increase in stratiform rain. Along the Caribbean coast, the diurnal cycle is weaker, with evidence of convection associated with the sea breeze, as well as a nocturnal increase in storms. The behavior of extreme precipitation features with rain volume in the 99th percentile is also analyzed. They are most frequent from May to November, with notable differences between features at the beginning/end of the rainy season versus those in the middle, as well as between wet and dry seasons. Convective rain exceeds stratiform in winter and midsummer extreme features, while stratiform rain is larger at the beginning and end of the wet season. Given projected changes in precipitation and extreme events in Costa Rica for future climate change scenarios, the results indicate the importance of understanding both changes in total precipitation and in the storm characteristics.

Full access
Xiaoqing Peng, Tingjun Zhang, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Kang Wang, Dongliang Luo, Bin Cao, Hang Su, Huijun Jin, and Qingbai Wu

Abstract

Variability of active layer thickness (ALT) in permafrost regions is critical for assessments of climate change, water resources, and engineering applications. Detailed knowledge of ALT variations is also important for studies on ecosystem, hydrological, and geomorphological processes in cold regions. The primary objective of this study is therefore to provide a comprehensive 1971–2000 climatology of ALT and its changes across the entire Northern Hemisphere from 1850 through 2100. To accomplish this, in situ observations, the Stefan solution based on a thawing index, and the edaphic factor (E factor) are employed to calculate ALT. The thawing index is derived from (i) the multimodel ensemble mean of 16 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) over 1850–2005, (ii) three representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5) for 2006–2100, and (iii) Climatic Research Unit (CRU) gridded observations for 1901–2014. The results show significant spatial variability in in situ ALT that generally ranges from 40 to 320 cm, with some extreme values of 900 cm in the Alps. The differences in the ALT climatology between the three RCPs and the historical experiments ranged from 0 to 200 cm. The biggest increases, of 120–200 cm, are on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, while the smallest increases of less than 20 cm are in Alaska. Averaged over all permafrost regions, mean ALT from CMIP5 increased significantly at 0.57 ± 0.04 cm decade−1 during 1850–2005, while 2006–2100 projections show ALT increases of 0.77 ± 0.08 cm decade−1 for RCP2.6, 2.56 ± 0.07 cm decade−1 for RCP4.5, and 6.51 ± 0.07 cm decade−1 for RCP8.5.

Full access
Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Kenneth G. Hubbard, Dev Niyogi, Gordon Bonan, Peter Lawrence, Richard McNider, Clive McAlpine, Andres Etter, Samuel Gameda, Budong Qian, Andrew Carleton, Adriana Beltran-Przekurat, Thomas Chase, Arturo I. Quintanar, Jimmy O. Adegoke, Sajith Vezhapparambu, Glen Conner, Salvi Asefi, Elif Sertel, David R. Legates, Yuling Wu, Robert Hale, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Anthony Watts, Marshall Shepherd, Chandana Mitra, Valentine G. Anantharaj, Souleymane Fall, Robert Lund, Anna Treviño, Peter Blanken, Jinyang Du, Hsin-I Chang, Ronnie Leeper, Udaysankar S. Nair, Scott Dobler, Ravinesh Deo, and Jozef Syktus
Full access