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J. W. M. Cuijpers and P. Bechtold


A simple parameterization of cloud water related variables has been developed which can be used in meteorological models that use a prognostic equation for the turbulent kinetic energy. Based on the results of large-eddy simulations (LES), expressions are derived for the liquid water flux, the partial cloudiness, and the cloud water content as a function of the normalized saturation deficit. With these relations, which are based on LESs ranging from situations with small to moderate amount of cumulus clouds to a stratocumulus case, no further knowledge about distribution functions or skewness is needed.

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P. Bechtold, J. W. M. Cuijpers, P. Mascart, and P. Trouilhet


A simple method is proposed to extend a low-order turbulence scheme including a subgrid-scale cloudiness scheme to represent not only nonconvective (stratiform) cloudiness and turbulence but also shallow, nonprecipitating cumulus convection by utilizing an appropriate subgrid-scale distribution function. A simple approach is chosen that avoids the knowledge of the skewness parameter. All cloud water-related variables (cloud water content, partial cloudiness, liquid water flux) are computed by interpolating linearly as a function of the saturation deficit between two limit cases: the stratocumulus case, which can be well represented by a Gaussian distribution function, and the trade wind cumulus case, characterized by a positively skewed distribution function with a skewness of 2.

Comparisons of the scheme with a third-order turbulence scheme and large-eddy simulations (LES) for the Puerto Rico Field Experiment show satisfying results. It is shown that the liquid water flux term, which is strongly dependent on the distribution chosen, is the crucial parameter of the scheme.

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J.-I. Yano, E. Machulskaya, P. Bechtold, and R. S. Plant
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I. Polichtchouk, T. G. Shepherd, R. J. Hogan, and P. Bechtold


The role of parameterized nonorographic gravity wave drag (NOGWD) and its seasonal interaction with the resolved wave drag in the stratosphere has been extensively studied in low-resolution (coarser than 1.9° × 2.5°) climate models but is comparatively unexplored in higher-resolution models. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System at 0.7° × 0.7° resolution, the wave drivers of the Brewer–Dobson circulation are diagnosed and the circulation sensitivity to the NOGW launch flux is explored. NOGWs are found to account for nearly 20% of the lower-stratospheric Southern Hemisphere (SH) polar cap downwelling and for less than 10% of the lower-stratospheric tropical upwelling and Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar cap downwelling. Despite these relatively small numbers, there are complex interactions between NOGWD and resolved wave drag, in both polar regions. Seasonal cycle analysis reveals a temporal offset in the resolved and parameterized wave interaction: the NOGWD response to altered source fluxes is largest in midwinter, while the resolved wave response is largest in the late winter and spring. This temporal offset is especially prominent in the SH. The impact of NOGWD on sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) life cycles and the final warming date in the SH is also investigated. An increase in NOGWD leads to an increase in SSW frequency, reduction in amplitude and persistence, and an earlier recovery of the stratopause following an SSW event. The SH final warming date is also brought forward when NOGWD is increased. Thus, NOGWD is still found to be a very important parameterization for stratospheric dynamics even in a high-resolution atmospheric model.

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P. Bechtold, S. K. Krueger, W. S. Lewellen, E. van Meijgaard, C.-H. Moeng, D. A. Randall, A. van Ulden, and S. Wang

Several one-dimensional (ID) cloud/turbulence ensemble modeling results of an idealized nighttime marine stratocumulus case are compared to large eddy simulation (LES). This type of model intercomparison was one of the objects of the first Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Study boundary layer modeling workshop held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research on 16–18 August 1994.

Presented are results obtained with different 1D models, ranging from bulk models (including only one or two vertical layers) to various types (first order to third order) of multilayer turbulence closure models. The ID results fall within the scatter of the LES results. It is shown that ID models can reasonably represent the main features (cloud water content, cloud fraction, and some turbulence statistics) of a well-mixed stratocumulus-topped boundary layer.

Also addressed is the question of what model complexity is necessary and can be afforded for a reasonable representation of stratocumulus clouds in mesoscale or global-scale operational models. Bulk models seem to be more appropriate for climate studies, whereas a multilayer turbulence scheme is best suited in mesoscale models having at least 100- to 200-m vertical resolution inside the boundary layer.

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Roberto Buizza, Paul Poli, Michel Rixen, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Michael G. Bosilovich, Stefan Brönnimann, Gilbert P. Compo, Dick P. Dee, Franco Desiato, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Masatomo Fujiwara, Andrea K. Kaiser-Weiss, Shinya Kobayashi, Zhiquan Liu, Simona Masina, Pierre-Philippe Mathieu, Nick Rayner, Carolin Richter, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Adrian J. Simmons, Jean-Noel Thépaut, Jeffrey D. Auger, Michel Bechtold, Ellen Berntell, Bo Dong, Michal Kozubek, Khaled Sharif, Christopher Thomas, Semjon Schimanke, Andrea Storto, Matthias Tuma, Ilona Välisuo, and Alireza Vaselali
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