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  • Author or Editor: P. M. Wolff x
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E. R. Reins
and
P. M. Wolff

Specially built equipments for high-speed transmission of weather charts and data by land-line and radio are described. Included are computer to plotter, computer to computer, and magnetic tape to magnetic tape systems, all built by Fleet Numerical Weather Facility. Monterey, at a fraction of the cost of comparable commercial gear. The integration of these units into a modern system is illustrated, and some results from experience with the Fleet Weather Central, Honolulu, to Monterey to Fleet Weather Central, Suitland, link are listed.

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P. M. Wolff
and
W. E. Hubert

Meteorological problem solving can be done most efficiently by computers with certain characteristics. These are discussed in terms of field size, data significance, programming methods and operational procedures. Trends in computer development and capabilities are identified and extrapolated into the future. Recent reduction in the price and increase in the reliability of electronic components should lower maintenance costs especially if done in-house. A cost analysis of the economics of computer operations reveals that most meteorological computers should be purchased.

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F. A. Berry
,
W. H. Haggard
, and
P. M. Wolff

Abstract

Mean geostrophic west-wind profiles are presented from seven years of 500-mb data. A method is out-lined for analyzing these profiles objectively. The appearance and significance of index cycles shown on this objective analysis are discussed. Comparisons are made between short-period continuity and inter-annual variability.

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J. J. George
,
P. M. Wolff
, and
W. L. Somervell Jr.

Abstract

An empirically derived method is presented for objectively predicting the 24-hr movement and change in intensity of maritime cyclones. The technique developed requires only measurement of the 500-mb height and temperature gradients above the current sea-level center, and determination of the type of 500-mb flow within which the surface system is embedded.

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LCDR. W. E. HUBERT
,
CDR. P. M. WOLFF
, and
C. L. CAVE

Abstract

Trajectories at 300 mb. numerically computed from the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit's operational forecasts are compared with transosonde balloon tracks. The method developed by Hubert is shown to provide trajectories of considerable accuracy.

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M. P. Jensen
,
W. A. Petersen
,
A. Bansemer
,
N. Bharadwaj
,
L. D. Carey
,
D. J. Cecil
,
S. M. Collis
,
A. D. Del Genio
,
B. Dolan
,
J. Gerlach
,
S. E. Giangrande
,
A. Heymsfield
,
G. Heymsfield
,
P. Kollias
,
T. J. Lang
,
S. W. Nesbitt
,
A. Neumann
,
M. Poellot
,
S. A. Rutledge
,
M. Schwaller
,
A. Tokay
,
C. R. Williams
,
D. B. Wolff
,
S. Xie
, and
E. J. Zipser

Abstract

The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April–May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve our understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system life cycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives, a multiscale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop size distributions, and ice properties were retrieved from multiwavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multiplatform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 m s−1 supported growth of hail and large raindrops. Data collected during the MC3E campaign are being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and are available through the ARM and NASA data archives.

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Greg M. McFarquhar
,
Christopher S. Bretherton
,
Roger Marchand
,
Alain Protat
,
Paul J. DeMott
,
Simon P. Alexander
,
Greg C. Roberts
,
Cynthia H. Twohy
,
Darin Toohey
,
Steve Siems
,
Yi Huang
,
Robert Wood
,
Robert M. Rauber
,
Sonia Lasher-Trapp
,
Jorgen Jensen
,
Jeffrey L. Stith
,
Jay Mace
,
Junshik Um
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Andrew Gettelman
,
Kevin J. Sanchez
,
Christina S. McCluskey
,
Lynn M. Russell
,
Isabel L. McCoy
,
Rachel L. Atlas
,
Charles G. Bardeen
,
Kathryn A. Moore
,
Thomas C. J. Hill
,
Ruhi S. Humphries
,
Melita D. Keywood
,
Zoran Ristovski
,
Luke Cravigan
,
Robyn Schofield
,
Chris Fairall
,
Marc D. Mallet
,
Sonia M. Kreidenweis
,
Bryan Rainwater
,
John D’Alessandro
,
Yang Wang
,
Wei Wu
,
Georges Saliba
,
Ezra J. T. Levin
,
Saisai Ding
,
Francisco Lang
,
Son C. H. Truong
,
Cory Wolff
,
Julie Haggerty
,
Mike J. Harvey
,
Andrew R. Klekociuk
, and
Adrian McDonald

Abstract

Weather and climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in simulating Southern Ocean (SO) radiative fluxes that trace to a poor understanding of cloud, aerosol, precipitation, and radiative processes, and their interactions. Projects between 2016 and 2018 used in situ probes, radar, lidar, and other instruments to make comprehensive measurements of thermodynamics, surface radiation, cloud, precipitation, aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles over the SO cold waters, and in ubiquitous liquid and mixed-phase clouds common to this pristine environment. Data including soundings were collected from the NSF–NCAR G-V aircraft flying north–south gradients south of Tasmania, at Macquarie Island, and on the R/V Investigator and RSV Aurora Australis. Synergistically these data characterize boundary layer and free troposphere environmental properties, and represent the most comprehensive data of this type available south of the oceanic polar front, in the cold sector of SO cyclones, and across seasons. Results show largely pristine environments with numerous small and few large aerosols above cloud, suggesting new particle formation and limited long-range transport from continents, high variability in CCN and cloud droplet concentrations, and ubiquitous supercooled water in thin, multilayered clouds, often with small-scale generating cells near cloud top. These observations demonstrate how cloud properties depend on aerosols while highlighting the importance of dynamics and turbulence that likely drive heterogeneity of cloud phase. Satellite retrievals confirmed low clouds were responsible for radiation biases. The combination of models and observations is examining how aerosols and meteorology couple to control SO water and energy budgets.

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