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PAUL C. KANGIESER

Abstract

Minimum temperature formulas for clear nights in December, January, and February are developed by the Young method and tested on both original and test data. The results of these tests lead to a discussion of some weaknesses of the “method of arbitrary corrections.” Jacobs' graphical adaptation of Brunt's equation is tested (a) using experimentally determined values for the local soil constants to compute the “effective” soil factor, and (b) using a soil factor determined empirically for local meteorological data. With Brunt's equation as a model, the physical justification for Young's method is discussed, and a more direct approach suggested using the evening dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures and a modern method of data analysis. There is further discussion of some implicit assumptions in the Young method of analysis and an attempt is made to see if these assumptions are satisfied by the analysis performed in combining the evening dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures and the expected morning minimum using modern methods. In the Appendix, the application of the latter method is extended to cloudy nights and performance comparisons with official forecasts are made and discussed.

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PAUL C. KANGIESER

Abstract

Daily minimum temperature averages for the Phoenix City Office based on 61 years of record show a definite rise in the period January 9–17, with relatively lower values in the 9-day periods preceding and following. This rise is investigated statistically and shown to be greater than chance would allow if random effects alone are responsible for the phenomenon. The possibility of a relationship between the Phoenix singularity and those demonstrated by Wahl [1] for stations in the eastern United States is discussed briefly.

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PAUL C. KANGIESER

Abstract

Previous investigations indicate that the freeze date variance varies slowly with geographical factors over parts of the United States. Evidence is presented here which indicates that the variation may be greater over the State of Arizona.

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PAUL C. KANGIESER

Abstract

A typical ceilometer record during rainfall is examined and certain regular and recurring oscillations beginning uniformly at an angle of elevation of 48° and decreasing gradually with elevation are noted. These features are explained physically as “rainbow” effects. The angle of elevation of maximum oscillation is shown to be about 49° regardless of base-line length; the tapering off above is discussed. Possible “secondary rainbow” effects at lower elevation angles are mentioned. Finally, methods of differentiating between the rainbow effects and cloud layers are suggested.

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PAUL C. KANGIESER

Abstract

On Sept. 5, 1970, 10.99 in. of rain fell in 1 observational day at the National Weather Service cooperative station known as Workman Creek 1, Ariz. A 30-yr series of observations is analyzed to estimate the return period of this unusually large rainfall amount. It is concluded that the return period for this event is well in excess of 500 yr.

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PAUL C. KANGIESER

Abstract

Observations of the distribution of minute foreign particles introduced into a small, mechanically produced air vortex are briefly described. Ideas that grew from these observations are developed quantitatively into a physical explanation of the hollow structure of waterspouts that depends on the balance of centrifugal and drag forces acting on condensed water particles. It is also suggested that the mechanism may operate in tornado vortices.

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