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Paolo Ghinassi, Georgios Fragkoulidis, and Volkmar Wirth

Abstract

Upper-tropospheric Rossby wave packets (RWPs) are important dynamical features, because they are often associated with weather systems and sometimes act as precursors to high-impact weather. The present work introduces a novel diagnostic to identify RWPs and to quantify their amplitude. It is based on the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura, which is generalized to the primitive equations in isentropic coordinates. The new diagnostic is applied to a specific episode containing large-amplitude RWPs and compared with a more traditional diagnostic based on the envelope of the meridional wind. In this case, LWA provides a more coherent picture of the RWPs and their zonal propagation. This difference in performance is demonstrated more explicitly in the framework of an idealized barotropic model simulation, where LWA is able to follow an RWP into its fully nonlinear stage, including cutoff formation and wave breaking, while the envelope diagnostic yields reduced amplitudes in such situations.

Open access
Marlene Baumgart, Paolo Ghinassi, Volkmar Wirth, Tobias Selz, George C. Craig, and Michael Riemer

Abstract

Two diagnostics based on potential vorticity and the envelope of Rossby waves are used to investigate upscale error growth from a dynamical perspective. The diagnostics are applied to several cases of global, real-case ensemble simulations, in which the only difference between the ensemble members lies in the random seed of the stochastic convection scheme. Based on a tendency equation for the enstrophy error, the relative importance of individual processes to enstrophy-error growth near the tropopause is quantified. After the enstrophy error is saturated on the synoptic scale, the envelope diagnostic is used to investigate error growth up to the planetary scale. The diagnostics reveal distinct stages of the error growth: in the first 12 h, error growth is dominated by differences in the convection scheme. Differences in the upper-tropospheric divergent wind then project these diabatic errors into the tropopause region (day 0.5–2). The subsequent error growth (day 2–14.5) is governed by differences in the nonlinear near-tropopause dynamics. A fourth stage of the error growth is found up to 18 days when the envelope diagnostic indicates error growth from the synoptic up to the planetary scale. Previous ideas of the multiscale nature of upscale error growth are confirmed in general. However, a novel interpretation of the governing processes is provided. The insight obtained into the dynamics of upscale error growth may help to design representations of uncertainty in operational forecast models and to identify atmospheric conditions that are intrinsically prone to large error amplification.

Open access
Paolo Ghinassi, Marlene Baumgart, Franziska Teubler, Michael Riemer, and Volkmar Wirth

Abstract

Recently, the authors proposed a novel diagnostic to quantify the amplitude of Rossby wave packets. This diagnostic extends the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of N. Nakamura and collaborators to the primitive-equations framework and combines it with a zonal filter to remove the phase dependence. In the present work, this diagnostic is used to investigate the dynamics of upper-tropospheric Rossby wave packets, with a particular focus on distinguishing between conservative dynamics and nonconservative processes. For this purpose, a budget equation for filtered LWA is derived and its utility is tested in a hierarchy of models. Idealized simulations with a barotropic and a dry primitive-equation model confirm the ability of the LWA diagnostic to identify nonconservative local sources or sinks of wave activity. In addition, the LWA budget is applied to forecast data for an episode in which the amplitude of an upper-tropospheric Rossby wave packet was poorly represented. The analysis attributes deficiencies in the Rossby wave packet amplitude to the misrepresentation of diabatic processes and illuminates the importance of the upper-level divergent outflow as a source for the error in the wave packet amplitude.

Open access