Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Patrick J. Hogan x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Patrick J. Hogan and Harley E. Hurlburt

Abstract

A regional primitive equation ocean model is used to investigate the impact of grid resolution, baroclinic instability, bottom topography, and isopycnal outcropping on the dynamics of the wind and throughflow-forced surface circulation in the Japan/East Sea. The results demonstrate that at least 1/32° (3.5 km) horizontal grid resolution is necessary to generate sufficient baroclinic instability to produce eddy-driven cyclonic deep mean flows. These abyssal currents follow the f/h contours of the bottom topography and allow the bottom topography to strongly influence mean pathways of the upper-ocean currents in the Japan/East Sea. This upper ocean–topographical coupling via baroclinic instability (actually a mixed baroclinic–barotropic instability) requires that mesoscale variability be very well resolved to obtain sufficient coupling. For example, 1/32° resolution is required to obtain a realistic separation latitude of the East Korean Warm Current (EKWC) from the Korean coast when Hellerman–Rosenstein monthly climatological wind stress forcing is used. Separation of the EKWC is more realistic at 1/8° resolution when the model is forced with climatological winds formed from the ECMWF 10-m reanalysis due to strong positive wind stress curl north of the separation latitude, but at 1/8° the level of baroclinic instability is insufficient to initiate upper ocean–topographical coupling. Hence, this major topographical effect is largely missed at coarser resolution and leads to erroneous conclusions about the role of bottom topography and unexplained errors in the pathways of current systems. Results from a 1/64° simulation are similar to those at 1/32°, particularly where the EKWC separates from the Korean coast, suggesting statistical simulation convergence for mesoscale variability has been nearly achieved at 1/32° resolution. Isopycnal outcropping and associated vertical mixing provide an alternate mechanism to topographical control in developing and maintaining a boundary current along the west coast of Japan, but are less important than baroclinic instability in driving deep mean flows.

Full access
Prasad G. Thoppil and Patrick J. Hogan

Abstract

The circulation and mesoscale eddies in the Persian Gulf are investigated using results from a high-resolution (∼1 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The circulation in the Persian Gulf is composed of two spatial scales: basin scale and mesoscale. The progression of a cyclonic circulation cell dominates the basin-scale circulation in the eastern half of the gulf (52°–55°E) during March–July. This is primarily the consequence of density-driven outflow–inflow through the Strait of Hormuz and strong stratification. A northwestward-flowing Iranian Coastal Current (ICC; 30–40 cm s−1) between the Strait of Hormuz and north of Qatar (∼52°E) forms the northern flank of the cell. Between July and August the ICC becomes unstable because of the baroclinic instability mechanism by releasing the potential energy stored in the cross-shelf density gradient. As a result, the meanders in the ICC evolve into a series of mesoscale eddies, which is denoted as the Iranian coastal eddies (ICE). The ICE have a diameter of about 115–130 km and extend vertically over most of the water column. Three cyclonic eddies produced by the model during August–September 2005 compared quite well with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SST and chlorophyll-a observations. The remnants of ICE are seen until November, after which they dissipate as the winter cooling causes the thermocline to collapse.

Full access
Prasad G. Thoppil and Patrick J. Hogan

Abstract

Observations in the Strait of Hormuz (26.26°N, 56.08°E) during 1997–98 showed substantial velocity fluctuations, accompanied by episodic changes in the salinity outflow events with amplitude varying between 1 and 2 psu on time scales of several days to a few weeks. These events are characterized by a rapid increase in salinity followed by an abrupt decline. The mechanisms behind these strong pulses of salinity events are investigated with a high-resolution (∼1 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) with particular reference to the year 2005. In accordance with the observations, the simulated salinity events are characterized by strong coherence between the enhanced flows in zonal and meridional directions. It is inferred that most of the simulated and observed outflow variability is associated with the continuous formation of strong mesoscale cyclonic eddies, whose origin can be traced upstream to around 26°N, 55.5°E. These cyclonic eddies have a diameter of about 63 km and have a remnant of Persian Gulf water (PGW) in their cores, which is eroded by lateral mixing as the eddies propagate downstream at a translation speed of 4.1 cm s−1. The primary process that acts to generate mesoscale cyclones results from the barotropic instability of the exchange circulation through the Strait of Hormuz induced by fluctuations in the wind stress forcing. The lack of salinity events and cyclogenesis in a model experiment with no wind stress forcing further confirms the essential ingredients required for the development of strong cyclones and the associated outflow variability.

Full access
Robert Wood, Matthew Wyant, Christopher S. Bretherton, Jasmine Rémillard, Pavlos Kollias, Jennifer Fletcher, Jayson Stemmler, Simone de Szoeke, Sandra Yuter, Matthew Miller, David Mechem, George Tselioudis, J. Christine Chiu, Julian A. L. Mann, Ewan J. O’Connor, Robin J. Hogan, Xiquan Dong, Mark Miller, Virendra Ghate, Anne Jefferson, Qilong Min, Patrick Minnis, Rabindra Palikonda, Bruce Albrecht, Ed Luke, Cecile Hannay, and Yanluan Lin

Abstract

The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009–December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer.

Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1 to 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.

The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

Full access