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Paul A. Spyers-Duran

Abstract

Liquid water concentrations in cumulus clouds have been measured from an aircraft using the Johnson-Williams hot wire device. From simultaneous continuous cloud replicator records, liquid water contents have been computed from the observed drop size distributions. Comparisons between data from the hot wire and replicator devices indicate that both instruments are fairly accurate in measuring liquid water contents at least up to 3.5 gm m−3, with the closest agreement when the median volume diameter of the cloud droplets was under 30 μm.

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Paul A. Spyers-Duran and Clinton D. Winant

Abstract

A comparison of sea surface temperatures is made between aircraft precision radiation thermometer (PRT-5) and aircraft deployed expendable bathythermographs (AXBT) drops. These observations were obtained using the NCAR King Air aircraft for an experiment in the Gulf of California during March 1984. The average difference between the sea surface temperatures reported by the first temperature observed in each AXBT drop and the PRT-5 is −0.07°C with a standard deviation of 0.57°C. The difference in temperature between the two observations increases at lower wind speeds. Based on 116 case studies, differences of 1–2°C exist between the surface and the upper meter of the ocean when wind speeds are less than 5 m s−1.

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Paul A. Spyers-Duran and Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

An instrument for collecting cloud particles from an airplane has been developed. Cloud particles are captured and permanently replicated using the well known Formvar technique. From the continuous record of hydrometeor replicas, the forms, sizes and frequency distributions can be established. Description of the instrument and examples of data collected from natural clouds are presented. Problems of calibration are discussed.

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