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Malte Müller, Mariken Homleid, Karl-Ivar Ivarsson, Morten A. Ø. Køltzow, Magnus Lindskog, Knut Helge Midtbø, Ulf Andrae, Trygve Aspelien, Lars Berggren, Dag Bjørge, Per Dahlgren, Jørn Kristiansen, Roger Randriamampianina, Martin Ridal, and Ole Vignes


Since October 2013 a convective-scale weather prediction model has been used operationally to provide short-term forecasts covering large parts of the Nordic region. The model is now operated by a bilateral cooperative effort [Meteorological Cooperation on Operational Numerical Weather Prediction (MetCoOp)] between the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The core of the model is based on the convection-permitting Applications of Research to Operations at Mesoscale (AROME) model developed by Météo-France. In this paper the specific modifications and updates that have been made to suit advanced high-resolution weather forecasts over the Nordic regions are described. This includes modifications in the surface drag description, microphysics, snow assimilation, as well as an update of the ecosystem and surface parameter description. Novel observation types are introduced in the operational runs, including ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations and radar reflectivity data from the Norwegian and Swedish radar networks. After almost two years’ worth of experience with the AROME-MetCoOp model, the model’s sensitivities to the use of specific parameterization settings are characterized and the forecast skills demonstrating the benefit as compared with the global European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ Integrated Forecasting System (ECMWF-IFS) are evaluated. Furthermore, case studies are provided to demonstrate the ability of the model to capture extreme precipitation and wind events.

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Stefan Brönnimann, Rob Allan, Christopher Atkinson, Roberto Buizza, Olga Bulygina, Per Dahlgren, Dick Dee, Robert Dunn, Pedro Gomes, Viju O. John, Sylvie Jourdain, Leopold Haimberger, Hans Hersbach, John Kennedy, Paul Poli, Jouni Pulliainen, Nick Rayner, Roger Saunders, Jörg Schulz, Alexander Sterin, Alexander Stickler, Holly Titchner, Maria Antonia Valente, Clara Ventura, and Clive Wilkinson


Global dynamical reanalyses of the atmosphere and ocean fundamentally rely on observations, not just for the assimilation (i.e., for the definition of the state of the Earth system components) but also in many other steps along the production chain. Observations are used to constrain the model boundary conditions, for the calibration or uncertainty determination of other observations, and for the evaluation of data products. This requires major efforts, including data rescue (for historical observations), data management (including metadatabases), compilation and quality control, and error estimation. The work on observations ideally occurs one cycle ahead of the generation cycle of reanalyses, allowing the reanalyses to make full use of it. In this paper we describe the activities within ERA-CLIM2, which range from surface, upper-air, and Southern Ocean data rescue to satellite data recalibration and from the generation of snow-cover products to the development of a global station data metadatabase. The project has not produced new data collections. Rather, the data generated has fed into global repositories and will serve future reanalysis projects. The continuation of this effort is first contingent upon the organization of data rescue and also upon a series of targeted research activities to address newly identified in situ and satellite records.

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Roberto Buizza, Stefan Brönnimann, Leopold Haimberger, Patrick Laloyaux, Matthew J. Martin, Manuel Fuentes, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Andreas Becker, Michael Blaschek, Per Dahlgren, Eric de Boisseson, Dick Dee, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Xiangbo Feng, Viju O. John, Keith Haines, Sylvie Jourdain, Yuki Kosaka, Daniel Lea, Florian Lemarié, Michael Mayer, Palmira Messina, Coralie Perruche, Philippe Peylin, Jounie Pullainen, Nick Rayner, Elke Rustemeier, Dinand Schepers, Roger Saunders, Jörg Schulz, Alexander Sterin, Sebastian Stichelberger, Andrea Storto, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Maria-Antóonia Valente, Arthur Vidard, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony Weaver, James While, and Markus Ziese


The European Reanalysis of Global Climate Observations 2 (ERA-CLIM2) is a European Union Seventh Framework Project started in January 2014 and due to be completed in December 2017. It aims to produce coupled reanalyses, which are physically consistent datasets describing the evolution of the global atmosphere, ocean, land surface, cryosphere, and the carbon cycle. ERA-CLIM2 has contributed to advancing the capacity for producing state-of-the-art climate reanalyses that extend back to the early twentieth century. ERA-CLIM2 has led to the generation of the first European ensemble of coupled ocean, sea ice, land, and atmosphere reanalyses of the twentieth century. The project has funded work to rescue and prepare observations and to advance the data-assimilation systems required to generate operational reanalyses, such as the ones planned by the European Union Copernicus Climate Change Service. This paper summarizes the main goals of the project, discusses some of its main areas of activities, and presents some of its key results.

Open access