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Peter Molnár and Jorge A. Ramírez


River systems in semiarid regions are susceptible to rapid and dramatic channel erosion and arroyo formation. Climate plays an important role in arroyo development through changes in precipitation intensity, seasonality, and variability. Here, trends in precipitation and streamflow at the annual, monthly, and daily timescales for the last 50 yr are analyzed for the Rio Puerco Basin in northwestern New Mexico, and connections with recent watershed and channel changes are examined. The increasing trend in annual precipitation in the basin is shown to be part of larger-scale climatic variability that affects the U.S. Southwest region, which is associated with climatic anomalies in the northern Pacific. Results of hydroclimatic data analyses point to a general increase in wetness in nonsummer months—an increase in the number of rainy days and in the frequency of flow days in the stream system is observed. There are substantial shifts in the distributions of both daily precipitation and streamflow. Rainfall with moderate intensity has been increasing, while the intensity of annual maximum rainfall events has remained largely unaffected. At the same time, the number of annual maximum runoff events in the basin has been steadily decreasing in the studied period. It is argued that recent watershed and arroyo changes that affect the rainfall–runoff relationship in the basin may be responsible for the decreasing trend in maximum runoff events. Field evidence of such changes in the Rio Puerco watershed and fluvial system is discussed.

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Nadav Peleg, Francesco Marra, Simone Fatichi, Peter Molnar, Efrat Morin, Ashish Sharma, and Paolo Burlando


This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between air temperature and convection by analyzing the characteristics of rainfall at the storm and convective rain cell scales. High spatial–temporal resolution (1 km, 5 min) estimates from a uniquely long weather radar record (24 years) were coupled with near-surface air temperature over Mediterranean and semiarid regions in the eastern Mediterranean. In the examined temperature range (5°–25°C), the peak intensity of individual convective rain cells was found to increase with temperature, but at a lower rate than the 7%°C−1 scaling expected from the Clausius–Clapeyron relation, while the area of the individual convective rain cells slightly decreases or, at most, remains unchanged. At the storm scale, the areal convective rainfall was found to increase with warmer temperatures, whereas the areal nonconvective rainfall and the stormwide area decrease. This suggests an enhanced moisture convergence from the stormwide extent toward the convective rain cells. Results indicate a reduction in the total rainfall amounts and an increased heterogeneity of the spatial structure of the storm rainfall for temperatures increasing up to 25°C. Thermodynamic conditions, analyzed using convective available potential energy, were determined to be similar between Mediterranean and semiarid regions. Limitations in the atmospheric moisture availability when shifting from Mediterranean to semiarid climates were detected and explain the suppression of the intensity of the convective rain cells when moving toward drier regions. The relationships obtained in this study are relevant for nearby regions characterized by Mediterranean and semiarid climates.

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