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Haiyuan Yang, Ping Chang, Bo Qiu, Qiuying Zhang, Lixin Wu, Zhaohui Chen, and Hong Wang


Using the high-resolution Community Earth System Model (CESM) output, this study investigates air–sea interaction and its role in eddy energy dissipation in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region. Based on an eddy energetics analysis, it is found that the baroclinic pathway associated with temperature variability is the main eddy energy source in this region. Both the air–sea heat flux and wind stress act as eddy killers that remove energy from oceanic eddies. Heat exchange between atmosphere and oceanic eddies dominates the dissipation of eddy temperature variance within the surface layer and accounts for 36% of the total dissipation in the upper 350-m layer. Compared to the heat exchange, the role of wind power in damping the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) is relatively small. Only 18% of EKE dissipation in the upper 350 m is attributed to eddy wind power. Misrepresentation of the damping role of mesoscale ocean–atmosphere interaction can result in an incorrect vertical structure of eddy energy dissipation, leading to an erroneous representation of vertical mixing in the interior ocean.

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Haiyuan Yang, Lixin Wu, Ping Chang, Bo Qiu, Zhao Jing, Qiuying Zhang, and Zhaohui Chen


Using eddy-resolving Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations, this study investigates mesoscale energetics and air–sea interaction at two different time-scale windows in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region. Based on an energy budget analysis, it is found that both baroclinic and barotropic pathways contribute to eddy energy generation within the low-frequency window (longer than 3 weeks) in this region, while both air–sea heat fluxes and wind stresses act as prominent eddy killers that remove energy from the ocean. In contrast, within the high-frequency window oceanic variability is mainly fed by baroclinic instability and regulated by turbulent thermal wind (TTW) processes, while the positive wind work is derived primarily from ageostrophic flow, i.e., Ekman drift, and along with air–sea heat fluxes has little influence on geostrophic mesoscale eddies.

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Shengpeng Wang, Zhao Jing, Qiuying Zhang, Ping Chang, Zhaohui Chen, Hailong Liu, and Lixin Wu


In this study, the global eddy kinetic energy (EKE) budget in horizontal wavenumber space is analyzed based on 1/10° ocean general circulation model simulations. In both the tropical and midlatitude regions, the barotropic energy conversion from background flow to eddies is positive throughout the wavenumber space and generally peaks at the scale (L e) where EKE reaches its maximum. The baroclinic energy conversion is more pronounced at midlatitudes. It exhibits a dipolar structure with positive and negative values at scales smaller and larger than L e, respectively. Surface wind power on geostrophic flow results in a significant EKE loss around L e but deposits energy at larger scales. The interior viscous dissipation and bottom drag inferred from the pressure flux convergence act as EKE sink terms. The latter is most efficient at L e while the former is more dominant at smaller scales. There is an evident mismatch between EKE generation and dissipation in the spectral space especially at the midlatitudes. This is reconciled by a dominant forward energy cascade on the equator and a dominant inverse energy cascade at the midlatitudes.

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