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R. D. Hill
,
R. G. Rinker
, and
H. Dale Wilson

Abstract

The production Of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) by lightning flashes has been computed from a model of gaseous molecular reactions occurring as heated lightning-channel air cools by mixing with surrounding ambient air. The effect of ozone (O3) on the production of nitrogen oxides has also been investigated in this model and it has been found that the O3 oxidizes NO to NO2 mainly at the end of the cooling process. The maximum total global production rate of nitrogen oxides by lightning is estimated to be ∼6×1027 molecules per second, or 14.4×106 tonnes of NO2, per year.

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A. Bodas-Salcedo
,
P. G. Hill
,
K. Furtado
,
K. D. Williams
,
P. R. Field
,
J. C. Manners
,
P. Hyder
, and
S. Kato

Abstract

The Southern Ocean is a critical region for global climate, yet large cloud and solar radiation biases over the Southern Ocean are a long-standing problem in climate models and are poorly understood, leading to biases in simulated sea surface temperatures. This study shows that supercooled liquid clouds are central to understanding and simulating the Southern Ocean environment. A combination of satellite observational data and detailed radiative transfer calculations is used to quantify the impact of cloud phase and cloud vertical structure on the reflected solar radiation in the Southern Hemisphere summer. It is found that clouds with supercooled liquid tops dominate the population of liquid clouds. The observations show that clouds with supercooled liquid tops contribute between 27% and 38% to the total reflected solar radiation between 40° and 70°S, and climate models are found to poorly simulate these clouds. The results quantify the importance of supercooled liquid clouds in the Southern Ocean environment and highlight the need to improve understanding of the physical processes that control these clouds in order to improve their simulation in numerical models. This is not only important for improving the simulation of present-day climate and climate variability, but also relevant for increasing confidence in climate feedback processes and future climate projections.

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D. R. Feldman
,
A. C. Aiken
,
W. R. Boos
,
R. W. H. Carroll
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
S. Collis
,
J. M. Creamean
,
G. de Boer
,
J. Deems
,
P. J. DeMott
,
J. Fan
,
A. N. Flores
,
D. Gochis
,
M. Grover
,
T. C. J. Hill
,
A. Hodshire
,
E. Hulm
,
C. C. Hume
,
R. Jackson
,
F. Junyent
,
A. Kennedy
,
M. Kumjian
,
E. J. T. Levin
,
J. D. Lundquist
,
J. O’Brien
,
M. S. Raleigh
,
J. Reithel
,
A. Rhoades
,
K. Rittger
,
W. Rudisill
,
Z. Sherman
,
E. Siirila-Woodburn
,
S. M. Skiles
,
J. N. Smith
,
R. C. Sullivan
,
A. Theisen
,
M. Tuftedal
,
A. C. Varble
,
A. Wiedlea
,
S. Wielandt
,
K. Williams
, and
Z. Xu

Abstract

The science of mountainous hydrology spans the atmosphere through the bedrock and inherently crosses physical and disciplinary boundaries: land–atmosphere interactions in complex terrain enhance clouds and precipitation, while watersheds retain and release water over a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Limited observations in complex terrain challenge efforts to improve predictive models of the hydrology in the face of rapid changes. The Upper Colorado River exemplifies these challenges, especially with ongoing mismatches between precipitation, snowpack, and discharge. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility has deployed an observatory to the East River Watershed near Crested Butte, Colorado, between September 2021 and June 2023 to measure the main atmospheric drivers of water resources, including precipitation, clouds, winds, aerosols, radiation, temperature, and humidity. This effort, called the Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory (SAIL), is also working in tandem with DOE-sponsored surface and subsurface hydrologists and other federal, state, and local partners. SAIL data can be benchmarks for model development by producing a wide range of observational information on precipitation and its associated processes, including those processes that impact snowpack sublimation and redistribution, aerosol direct radiative effects in the atmosphere and in the snowpack, aerosol impacts on clouds and precipitation, and processes controlling surface fluxes of energy and mass. Preliminary data from SAIL’s first year showcase the rich information content in SAIL’s many datastreams and support testing hypotheses that will ultimately improve scientific understanding and predictability of Upper Colorado River hydrology in 2023 and beyond.

Open access
T. C. Johns
,
C. F. Durman
,
H. T. Banks
,
M. J. Roberts
,
A. J. McLaren
,
J. K. Ridley
,
C. A. Senior
,
K. D. Williams
,
A. Jones
,
G. J. Rickard
,
S. Cusack
,
W. J. Ingram
,
M. Crucifix
,
D. M. H. Sexton
,
M. M. Joshi
,
B.-W. Dong
,
H. Spencer
,
R. S. R. Hill
,
J. M. Gregory
,
A. B. Keen
,
A. K. Pardaens
,
J. A. Lowe
,
A. Bodas-Salcedo
,
S. Stark
, and
Y. Searl

Abstract

A new coupled general circulation climate model developed at the Met Office's Hadley Centre is presented, and aspects of its performance in climate simulations run for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) documented with reference to previous models. The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 1 (HadGEM1) is built around a new atmospheric dynamical core; uses higher resolution than the previous Hadley Centre model, HadCM3; and contains several improvements in its formulation including interactive atmospheric aerosols (sulphate, black carbon, biomass burning, and sea salt) plus their direct and indirect effects. The ocean component also has higher resolution and incorporates a sea ice component more advanced than HadCM3 in terms of both dynamics and thermodynamics. HadGEM1 thus permits experiments including some interactive processes not feasible with HadCM3. The simulation of present-day mean climate in HadGEM1 is significantly better overall in comparison to HadCM3, although some deficiencies exist in the simulation of tropical climate and El Niño variability. We quantify the overall improvement using a quasi-objective climate index encompassing a range of atmospheric, oceanic, and sea ice variables. It arises partly from higher resolution but also from greater fidelity in modeling dynamical and physical processes, for example, in the representation of clouds and sea ice. HadGEM1 has a similar effective climate sensitivity (2.8 K) to a CO2 doubling as HadCM3 (3.1 K), although there are significant regional differences in their response patterns, especially in the Tropics. HadGEM1 is anticipated to be used as the basis both for higher-resolution and higher-complexity Earth System studies in the near future.

Full access
D. A. Knopf
,
K. R. Barry
,
T. A. Brubaker
,
L. G. Jahl
,
K. A. Jankowski
,
J. Li
,
Y. Lu
,
L. W. Monroe
,
K. A. Moore
,
F. A. Rivera-Adorno
,
K. A. Sauceda
,
Y. Shi
,
J. M. Tomlin
,
H. S. K. Vepuri
,
P. Wang
,
N. N. Lata
,
E. J. T. Levin
,
J. M. Creamean
,
T. C. J. Hill
,
S. China
,
P. A. Alpert
,
R. C. Moffet
,
N. Hiranuma
,
R. C. Sullivan
,
A. M. Fridlind
,
M. West
,
N. Riemer
,
A. Laskin
,
P. J. DeMott
, and
X. Liu

Abstract

Prediction of ice formation in clouds presents one of the grand challenges in the atmospheric sciences. Immersion freezing initiated by ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is the dominant pathway of primary ice crystal formation in mixed-phase clouds, where supercooled water droplets and ice crystals coexist, with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. However, derivation of INP number concentrations from an ambient aerosol population in cloud-resolving and climate models remains highly uncertain. We conducted an aerosol–ice formation closure pilot study using a field-observational approach to evaluate the predictive capability of immersion freezing INPs. The closure study relies on collocated measurements of the ambient size-resolved and single-particle composition and INP number concentrations. The acquired particle data serve as input in several immersion freezing parameterizations, which are employed in cloud-resolving and climate models, for prediction of INP number concentrations. We discuss in detail one closure case study in which a front passed through the measurement site, resulting in a change of ambient particle and INP populations. We achieved closure in some circumstances within uncertainties, but we emphasize the need for freezing parameterization of potentially missing INP types and evaluation of the choice of parameterization to be employed. Overall, this closure pilot study aims to assess the level of parameter details and measurement strategies needed to achieve aerosol–ice formation closure. The closure approach is designed to accurately guide immersion freezing schemes in models, and ultimately identify the leading causes for climate model bias in INP predictions.

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C. Flamant
,
P. Knippertz
,
A. H. Fink
,
A. Akpo
,
B. Brooks
,
C. J. Chiu
,
H. Coe
,
S. Danuor
,
M. Evans
,
O. Jegede
,
N. Kalthoff
,
A. Konaré
,
C. Liousse
,
F. Lohou
,
C. Mari
,
H. Schlager
,
A. Schwarzenboeck
,
B. Adler
,
L. Amekudzi
,
J. Aryee
,
M. Ayoola
,
A. M. Batenburg
,
G. Bessardon
,
S. Borrmann
,
J. Brito
,
K. Bower
,
F. Burnet
,
V. Catoire
,
A. Colomb
,
C. Denjean
,
K. Fosu-Amankwah
,
P. G. Hill
,
J. Lee
,
M. Lothon
,
M. Maranan
,
J. Marsham
,
R. Meynadier
,
J.-B. Ngamini
,
P. Rosenberg
,
D. Sauer
,
V. Smith
,
G. Stratmann
,
J. W. Taylor
,
C. Voigt
, and
V. Yoboué

Abstract

The European Union (EU)-funded project Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) investigates the relationship between weather, climate, and air pollution in southern West Africa—an area with rapid population growth, urbanization, and an increase in anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The air over this region contains a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquid droplets, and particles, emitted in an environment in which multilayer clouds frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, mainly owing to their impact on radiation, the surface energy balance, and thus the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer.

In June and July 2016, DACCIWA organized a major international field campaign in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. Three supersites in Kumasi, Savè, and Ile-Ife conducted permanent measurements and 15 intensive observation periods. Three European aircraft together flew 50 research flights between 27 June and 16 July 2016, for a total of 155 h. DACCIWA scientists launched weather balloons several times a day across the region (772 in total), measured urban emissions, and evaluated health data. The main objective was to build robust statistics of atmospheric composition, dynamics, and low-level cloud properties in various chemical landscapes to investigate their mutual interactions.

This article presents an overview of the DACCIWA field campaign activities as well as some first research highlights. The rich data obtained during the campaign will be made available to the scientific community and help to advance scientific understanding, modeling, and monitoring of the atmosphere over southern West Africa.

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Greg M. McFarquhar
,
Christopher S. Bretherton
,
Roger Marchand
,
Alain Protat
,
Paul J. DeMott
,
Simon P. Alexander
,
Greg C. Roberts
,
Cynthia H. Twohy
,
Darin Toohey
,
Steve Siems
,
Yi Huang
,
Robert Wood
,
Robert M. Rauber
,
Sonia Lasher-Trapp
,
Jorgen Jensen
,
Jeffrey L. Stith
,
Jay Mace
,
Junshik Um
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Andrew Gettelman
,
Kevin J. Sanchez
,
Christina S. McCluskey
,
Lynn M. Russell
,
Isabel L. McCoy
,
Rachel L. Atlas
,
Charles G. Bardeen
,
Kathryn A. Moore
,
Thomas C. J. Hill
,
Ruhi S. Humphries
,
Melita D. Keywood
,
Zoran Ristovski
,
Luke Cravigan
,
Robyn Schofield
,
Chris Fairall
,
Marc D. Mallet
,
Sonia M. Kreidenweis
,
Bryan Rainwater
,
John D’Alessandro
,
Yang Wang
,
Wei Wu
,
Georges Saliba
,
Ezra J. T. Levin
,
Saisai Ding
,
Francisco Lang
,
Son C. H. Truong
,
Cory Wolff
,
Julie Haggerty
,
Mike J. Harvey
,
Andrew R. Klekociuk
, and
Adrian McDonald

Abstract

Weather and climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in simulating Southern Ocean (SO) radiative fluxes that trace to a poor understanding of cloud, aerosol, precipitation, and radiative processes, and their interactions. Projects between 2016 and 2018 used in situ probes, radar, lidar, and other instruments to make comprehensive measurements of thermodynamics, surface radiation, cloud, precipitation, aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles over the SO cold waters, and in ubiquitous liquid and mixed-phase clouds common to this pristine environment. Data including soundings were collected from the NSF–NCAR G-V aircraft flying north–south gradients south of Tasmania, at Macquarie Island, and on the R/V Investigator and RSV Aurora Australis. Synergistically these data characterize boundary layer and free troposphere environmental properties, and represent the most comprehensive data of this type available south of the oceanic polar front, in the cold sector of SO cyclones, and across seasons. Results show largely pristine environments with numerous small and few large aerosols above cloud, suggesting new particle formation and limited long-range transport from continents, high variability in CCN and cloud droplet concentrations, and ubiquitous supercooled water in thin, multilayered clouds, often with small-scale generating cells near cloud top. These observations demonstrate how cloud properties depend on aerosols while highlighting the importance of dynamics and turbulence that likely drive heterogeneity of cloud phase. Satellite retrievals confirmed low clouds were responsible for radiation biases. The combination of models and observations is examining how aerosols and meteorology couple to control SO water and energy budgets.

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Chelsea R. Thompson
,
Steven C. Wofsy
,
Michael J. Prather
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Thomas F. Hanisco
,
Thomas B. Ryerson
,
David W. Fahey
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Charles A. Brock
,
William H. Brune
,
Karl Froyd
,
Joseph M. Katich
,
Julie M. Nicely
,
Jeff Peischl
,
Eric Ray
,
Patrick R. Veres
,
Siyuan Wang
,
Hannah M. Allen
,
Elizabeth Asher
,
Huisheng Bian
,
Donald Blake
,
Ilann Bourgeois
,
John Budney
,
T. Paul Bui
,
Amy Butler
,
Pedro Campuzano-Jost
,
Cecilia Chang
,
Mian Chin
,
Róisín Commane
,
Gus Correa
,
John D. Crounse
,
Bruce Daube
,
Jack E. Dibb
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
James W. Elkins
,
Arlene M. Fiore
,
Clare M. Flynn
,
Hao Guo
,
Samuel R. Hall
,
Reem A. Hannun
,
Alan Hills
,
Eric J. Hintsa
,
Alma Hodzic
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
L. Greg Huey
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Michelle J. Kim
,
Agnieszka Kupc
,
Forrest Lacey
,
Leslie R. Lait
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Junhua Liu
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Simone Meinardi
,
David O. Miller
,
Stephen A. Montzka
,
Fred L. Moore
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Daniel M. Murphy
,
Lee T. Murray
,
Benjamin A. Nault
,
J. Andrew Neuman
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Yenny Gonzalez
,
Andrew Rollins
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Maryann Sargent
,
Gregory Schill
,
Joshua P. Schwarz
,
Jason M. St. Clair
,
Stephen D. Steenrod
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Susan E. Strahan
,
Sarah A. Strode
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Alexander B. Thames
,
Kirk Ullmann
,
Nicholas Wagner
,
Rodney Weber
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Paul O. Wennberg
,
Christina J. Williamson
,
Glenn M. Wolfe
, and
Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

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