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R. D. Pingree

Abstract

Inversions of temperature and salinity are examined in terms of stability and sound velocity. Evidence relating stability to the sign of the temperature gradient in regions of pronounced temperature inversions is suggestive of two rate-diffusion processes operating in the sea. Complementary regions with pronounced small-scale salinity inversions do not appear to support this view.

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R. D. Pingree and A. L. New

Abstract

This paper describes field observations in the Bay of Biscay, and presents convincing evidence for the existence of a broad beam of internal tidal energy propagating downward from a source region on the upper continental slopes, which, after penetrating the deep ocean interior along a theoretical ray path, reaches the abyssal plain, at a depth of about 4.2 km, 58 km from the source. The results concentrate on the region between 50 and 60 km from the generating area, where the beam of energy is below a depth of 2 km. A marked change in phase of the beam (4 hours) was observed over a distance of 12 km at a depth of about 3 km. In addition, semidiurnal currents were noticeably increased near the sea floor. These results are interpreted as demonstrating the occurrence of partial bottom reflection of the internal tidal energy, in agreement with theoretical predictions, at a distance of about 58 km from the generating region on the upper slope, and extend our previous results farther into the ocean.

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R. D. Pingree and G. K. Morrison

Abstract

The mean density structure in the Northeast Atlantic is described in terms of the stability frequency. Some dynamic considerations are given to account for the observed distribution and to indicate the importance of this presentation. It is shown that the minimum stability may be identified with the spreading of Mediterranean water.

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