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R. G. Perkin and L. Lewis

Abstract

Measurements made in Cambridge Bay, N.W.T., during the winter show that the breaking of internal waves on the shore influences downward salt transport from the homogeneous surface layer produced by saline convection beneath sea ice during growth. Denser water from the shallows, where the depth of this convective layer is limited by the sea bed, flows down the slope to the layer interface contour where the breaking waves introduce turbulence aiding mixing of the convecting water into the lower layer.

Away from the boundaries entrainment of salt from the lower to the upper mixed layer is aided by the internal waves on the interface. These two salt transports, downward at the boundaries upward over the basin, produce horizontal salinity gradients which overall make water in the shallows less saline than the surface layer of the basin. The energies available for these mixing processes are estimated.

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D. R. Topham and R. G. Perkin

Abstract

The response characteristics of a family of conductivity cells typical of those employed in profiling instruments has been examined from a theoretical standpoint, and the conditions established under which such a cell exhibits a linear transfer function. The necessary conditions are that conductivity changes are small, and that the molecular diffusion of conductivity within the cell is negligible over times of interest. The first of these conditions is almost always satisfied, as is the second for the diffusion of salt; for conductivity changes arising from temperature, however, molecular diffusion of temperature imposes a severe limit on the linearity of the response.

The analysis fully accounts for the fluid flow within the cell, and includes the effect of the internal frictional losses on the cell entry flow speed—an important effect on cell response. Numerical results of the step responses of the Neil Brown and Guildline cells are presented and those for the former closely match available experimental data over a wide range of fall speeds. Simple algebraic correlations of the numerical results allow easy prediction of the response of the Neil Brown cell and an approximate algorithm is presented, which can be applied to a wide range of cell designs.

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E. L. Lewis and R. G. Perkin

Abstract

Studies of water movement in the Aafardlikavsâ/Qaumarujuk fjord system in West Greenland have barn carried out in order to understand the movement of mine tailings discharged into Agfardlikavsâ Fjord. Observations are explained in terms of resonance of the internal tide, deep convection associated with sea ice growth, and basin water exchange occurring at the time of ice breakup in early summer. Mixing processes are dominated by these events, illustrating the limitations of any seasonal description based on conventional diffusive processes.

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R. G. Perkin and E. L. Lewis

Abstract

Twenty-eight profiles of temperature and salinity down to 1 km depth have been measured in the area north from the coast of Svalbard to latitude 84°40′N between 0 and 32°E longitude. They show Atlantic waters of the West Spitsbergen Current entering the Arctic Ocean in a bifilimentary mode, one filament following the coastline and the other, 300 km farther north, apparently following the continental-shelf break. The profiles show these filaments mixing into the ambient water in a series of intrusive layers which are remarkably uniform over distances of hundreds of kilometers. A “triple peak” structure at the Atlantic water maximum is the dominant oceanographic characteristic of the area with salt fingering occurring on the upper surface of the cold intrusions and indications of double diffusive exchanges through the lower. surface. A system or eddies or meanders is postulated as the mechanism for the production of multiple fronts allowing the intrusive layers to extend to distances much greater than the internal Rossby radius.

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Robert J. H. Dunn, F. Aldred, Nadine Gobron, John B. Miller, Kate M. Willett, M. Ades, Robert Adler, Richard, P. Allan, Rob Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, John A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier Bock, X. Bodin, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, S. A. Buehler, B. Calmettes, Laura Carrea, Laura Castia, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Owen R. Cooper, Richard C. Cornes, Curt Covey, J.-F. Cretaux, M. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Doug Degenstein, R. Delaloye, Larry Di Girolamo, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, Gregory Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, Matthew Gentry, S. K. Gupta, S. Hahn, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, D. L. Hemming, M. Hirschi, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho, F. Hrbacek, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju O. John, Philip D. Jones, Robert Junod, J. W. Kaiser, V. Kaufmann, A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Elizabeth C. Kent, R. Kidd, Hyungjun Kim, Z. Kipling, A. Koppa, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, D. Lavers, Norman G. Loeb, Diego Loyola, R. Madelon, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Christopher J. Merchant, Diego G. Miralles, L. Moesinger, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, L. Mösinger, Jens Mühle, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Ben Noll, J. O’Keefe, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. J. Pasik, C. Pellet, Maury S. Pelto, S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Petron, Coda Phillips, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, D. G. Rains, W. J. Randel, Nick A. Rayner, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández, K.H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, A. Rozanov, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, R. W. Schlegel, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, Adrian J. Simmons, Carolina Siso, Sharon L. Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Martin Stengel, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Sunny Sun-Mack, P. Tans, S. J. Thackeray, E. Thibert, D. Tokuda, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald van der A, Robin van der Schalie, Gerard van der Schrier, M. van der Vliet, Guido R. van der Werf, A. Vance, Jean-Paul Vernier, Isaac J. Vimont, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Markus Weber, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xinjia Zhou, Xungang Yin, Guangyu Zhao, Lin Zhao, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus Ziese, and R. M. Zotta
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M. Ades, R. Adler, Rob Allan, R. P. Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, J. A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, J. Barnes, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier. Bock, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier. Boucher, S. A. Buehler, Laura. Carrea, Hanne H. Christiansen, F. Chouza, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Gil P. Compo, Owen R. Cooper, Curt Covey, A. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Elvira de Eyto, Richard A. M de Jeu, B.V. VanderSat, Curtis L. DeGasperi, Doug Degenstein, Larry Di Girolamo, Martin T. Dokulil, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, G. Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Richard A. Frey, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, S. K. Gupta, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, Andrew K Heidinger, D. L. Hemming, Shu-peng (Ben) Ho, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, I. Hüser, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju John, Philip D. Jones, J. W. Kaiser, S. Kelly, S. Khaykin, R. Kidd, Hyungiun Kim, Z. Kipling, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, R. S. La Fuente, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, T. Leblanc, Bailing Li, Norman G Loeb, Craig S. Long, Diego Loyola, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, B. Martens, Linda May, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, W. Paul Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Ben R. Miller, Diego G. Miralles, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, Jens Mühle, R. Myneni, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. Pasik, Andrew M. Paterson, Mauri S. Pelto, S. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Pétron, C. Phillips, Bernard Pinty, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, M. Pulkkanen, W. J. Randel, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, L. Rieger, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, A. Rozanov, James A. Rusak, O. Rusanovskaya, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, S. Geoffey Schladow, R. W Schlegel, Eawag Schmid, Martin, H. B. Selkirk, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, S. V. Shimaraeva, E. A. Silow, Adrian J. Simmons, C. A. Smith, Sharon L Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, G. Taha, Hagen Telg, S. J. Thackeray, M. A. Timofeyev, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald J. van der A, Robin, VanderSat B.V. van der Schalie, Gerard van der SchrierW. Paul, Guido R. van der Werf, Piet Verburg, Jean-Paul Vernier, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Shohei G. Watanabe, Mark Weber, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xungang Yin, Lin Zhao, Guanguo Zhao, Xinjia Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, and Markus Ziese
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Robert J. H. Dunn, Freya Aldred, Nadine Gobron, John B. Miller, Kate M. Willett, Melanie Ades, Robert Adler, R. P. Allan, John Anderson, Orlane Anneville, Yasuyuki Aono, Anthony Argüez, Carlo Arosio, John A. Augustine, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jonathan Barichivich, Aman Basu, Hylke E. Beck, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, Kevin Blagrave, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier Bock, Xavier Bodin, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, Gerald Bove, Dennis Buechler, Stefan A. Buehler, Laura Carrea, Kai-Lan Chang, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, Eui-Seok Chung, Laura M. Ciasto, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Owen R. Cooper, Richard C. Cornes, Curt Covey, Thomas Cropper, Molly Crotwell, Diego Cusicanqui, Sean M. Davis, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Doug Degenstein, Reynald Delaloye, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, Gregory Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Thomas W. Estilow, Nava Fedaeff, David Fereday, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Martin Füllekrug, Judith Garforth, Jay Garg, Matthew Gentry, Steven Goodman, Qiqi Gou, Nikolay Granin, Mauro Guglielmin, Sebastian Hahn, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, Debbie L. Hemming, Martin Hirschi, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho, Robert Holzworth, Filip Hrbáček, Daan Hubert, Petra Hulsman, Dale F. Hurst, Antje Inness, Ketil Isaksen, Viju O. John, Philip D. Jones, Robert Junod, Andreas Kääb, Johannes W. Kaiser, Viktor Kaufmann, Andreas Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Elizabeth C. Kent, Richard Kidd, Hyungiun Kim, Zak Kipling, Akash Koppa, Jan Henning L’Abée-Lund, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, David Lavers, Norman G. Loeb, Diego Loyola, Remi Madelon, Hilmar J. Malmquist, Wlodzimierz Marszelewski, Michael Mayer, Matthew F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Annette Menzel, Christopher J. Merchant, Diego G. Miralles, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, Leander Mösinger, Jens Mühle, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Tiina Nõges, Ben Noll, John O’Keefe, Tim J. Osborn, Taejin Park, Cecile Pellet, Maury S. Pelto, Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Coda Phillips, Stephen Po-Chedley, Lorenzo Polvani, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Colin Price, Merja Pulkkanen, Dominik G. Rains, William J. Randel, Samuel Rémy, Lucrezia Ricciardulli, Andrew D. Richardson, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández, Karen H. Rosenlof, Chris Roth, Alexei Rozanov, This Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, Parnchai Sawaengphokhai, Verena Schenzinger, Robert W. Schlegel, Udo Schneider, Sapna Sharma, Lei Shi, Adrian J. Simmons, Carolina Siso, Sharon L. Smith, Brian J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, Tim H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Ryan Stauffer, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Andrea K. Steiner, Kenton Stewart, Pietro Stradiotti, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Hagen Telg, Stephen J. Thackeray, Emmanuel Thibert, Michael Todt, Daisuke Tokuda, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald van der A, Robin van der Schalie, Gerard van der Schrier, Mendy van der Vliet, Guido R. van der Werf, Arnold. van Vliet, Jean-Paul Vernier, Isaac J. Vimont, Katrina Virts, Sebastiàn Vivero, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray H. J. Wang, Markus Weber, David Wiese, Jeanette D. Wild, Earle Williams, Takmeng Wong, R. I. Woolway, Xungang Yin, Ye Yuan, Lin Zhao, Xinjia Zhou, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus Ziese, and Ruxandra M. Zotta
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