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  • Author or Editor: R. J. Krauss x
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T. W. Krauss
,
R. T. Bruintjes
, and
J. Verlinde

Abstract

Controlled cloud seeding experiments were conducted near Bethlehem, South Africa during the summer of 1984–85. The experimental unit was the semi-isolated cumulus congestus cloud. Microphysical measurements were obtained by three instrumented aircraft flying in stacked formation. Radar observations were made by a 5-cm wavelength radar performing volume scans at 5-min intervals. A three-way balanced randomization scheme was used to seed the clouds near the −8°C level with either dry ice pellets, silver iodide pyrotechnics, or a placebo (no-seed) treatment. Strict cloud selection criteria, based on the measurements made during an initial inspection penetration, assured the treatment of clouds in their developing stages as their tops row up through the −10°C level. A total of 60 clouds were chosen and treated.

Using ice crystal measurements, mostly above the seeding level, it was conclusively demonstrated that some cumulus clouds were modified by the injection of either dry ice or silver iodide. High ice concentrations were produced and the evolution of the ice particle size distribution is consistent with a rain enhancement hypothesis involving an artificially induced ice embryo process. However, the liquid water contents decayed rapidly, primarily due to entrainment, and in the majority of the seeded cases precipitation particles formed due to low-density accretion onto aggregates resulting in little or no precipitation at the ground. The dry ice and silver iodide seeded clouds that echoed had significantly higher maximum 1-km average ice concentrations than the placebo clouds, as measured by the research aircraft during the clouds' developing stages.

Approximately 67% of the dry ice-treated clouds, 63% of the silver iodide–treated clouds and 45% of the placebo clouds produced radar echoes >10 dBZ. The dry ice-seeded clouds that echoed had significantly higher maximum cell heights than the placebo cells and the silver iodide-seeded cells. When the test cloud data were stratified according to cloud diameter, a positive association existed between seeding and the number of clouds that echoed. Wider clouds responded more favorably to seeding, presumably because they were affected less by entrainment.

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L. A. Sromovsky
,
H. E. Revercomb
,
V. E. Suomi
,
S. S. Limaye
, and
R. J. Krauss

Abstract

Previous Voyager 1 and 2 Jovian circulation measurements exhibit a large positive correlation between eddy momentum transports and the meridional shear of the zonal wind component, implying a very large rate of conversion of eddy kinetic energy into kinetic energy of the zonal jets. Examination of the vectors mainly responsible for the correlation in our recent Voyager 2 global measurements indicates that it is probably caused by a biased sampling of prominent cloud features associated with circulating eddies. Intensive diagnostic measurements with more nearly uniform spatial sampling show no significant correlation in regions where our original measurements showed strong correlations. If the sampling bias mechanism is fully accounted for in all Jovian circulation measurements, the estimated eddy-to-mean-flow kinetic energy conversion rate may be reduced significantly.

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S. S. Limaye
,
H. E. Revercomb
,
L. A. Sromovsky
,
R. J. Krauss
,
D. A. Santek
,
V. E. Suomi
,
S. A. Collins
, and
C. C. Avis

Abstract

Independent measurements of Jovian cloud motions confirm previously published results on the general structure of Jupiter's zonal mean circulation. The new results are based on Voyager 2 images and measurement techniques which are different from those used in previous studies. The latitudes of the zonal jets agree with previous results, but there are some differences in the measured speed of the jets which exceed uncertainty estimates. These differences may be due to differences in sampling strategies. The structure of the zonal mean meridional velocity profile has still not been clearly resolved: mean meridional velocities generally differ from zero by no more than their estimated uncertainty. An analysis of successive measurements of the same cloud targets shows that most of the variance of individual velocity measurements is due to true variability of the winds. In agreement with the previous results the curvature of the zonal velocity profile is consistent with barotropic instability within most easterly jets, although the cloud morphologies visible in the images do not confirm that large-scale instabilities actually exist in these regions. Baroclinic effects may also be important in these regions. Large differences among independent estimates of eddy momentum transport indicate that this quantity has yet to be reliably determined.

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Sara H. Knox
,
Robert B. Jackson
,
Benjamin Poulter
,
Gavin McNicol
,
Etienne Fluet-Chouinard
,
Zhen Zhang
,
Gustaf Hugelius
,
Philippe Bousquet
,
Josep G. Canadell
,
Marielle Saunois
,
Dario Papale
,
Housen Chu
,
Trevor F. Keenan
,
Dennis Baldocchi
,
Margaret S. Torn
,
Ivan Mammarella
,
Carlo Trotta
,
Mika Aurela
,
Gil Bohrer
,
David I. Campbell
,
Alessandro Cescatti
,
Samuel Chamberlain
,
Jiquan Chen
,
Weinan Chen
,
Sigrid Dengel
,
Ankur R. Desai
,
Eugenie Euskirchen
,
Thomas Friborg
,
Daniele Gasbarra
,
Ignacio Goded
,
Mathias Goeckede
,
Martin Heimann
,
Manuel Helbig
,
Takashi Hirano
,
David Y. Hollinger
,
Hiroki Iwata
,
Minseok Kang
,
Janina Klatt
,
Ken W. Krauss
,
Lars Kutzbach
,
Annalea Lohila
,
Bhaskar Mitra
,
Timothy H. Morin
,
Mats B. Nilsson
,
Shuli Niu
,
Asko Noormets
,
Walter C. Oechel
,
Matthias Peichl
,
Olli Peltola
,
Michele L. Reba
,
Andrew D. Richardson
,
Benjamin R. K. Runkle
,
Youngryel Ryu
,
Torsten Sachs
,
Karina V. R. Schäfer
,
Hans Peter Schmid
,
Narasinha Shurpali
,
Oliver Sonnentag
,
Angela C. I. Tang
,
Masahito Ueyama
,
Rodrigo Vargas
,
Timo Vesala
,
Eric J. Ward
,
Lisamarie Windham-Myers
,
Georg Wohlfahrt
, and
Donatella Zona

Abstract

This paper describes the formation of, and initial results for, a new FLUXNET coordination network for ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) measurements at 60 sites globally, organized by the Global Carbon Project in partnership with other initiatives and regional flux tower networks. The objectives of the effort are presented along with an overview of the coverage of eddy covariance (EC) CH4 flux measurements globally, initial results comparing CH4 fluxes across the sites, and future research directions and needs. Annual estimates of net CH4 fluxes across sites ranged from −0.2 ± 0.02 g C m–2 yr–1 for an upland forest site to 114.9 ± 13.4 g C m–2 yr–1 for an estuarine freshwater marsh, with fluxes exceeding 40 g C m–2 yr–1 at multiple sites. Average annual soil and air temperatures were found to be the strongest predictor of annual CH4 flux across wetland sites globally. Water table position was positively correlated with annual CH4 emissions, although only for wetland sites that were not consistently inundated throughout the year. The ratio of annual CH4 fluxes to ecosystem respiration increased significantly with mean site temperature. Uncertainties in annual CH4 estimates due to gap-filling and random errors were on average ±1.6 g C m–2 yr–1 at 95% confidence, with the relative error decreasing exponentially with increasing flux magnitude across sites. Through the analysis and synthesis of a growing EC CH4 flux database, the controls on ecosystem CH4 fluxes can be better understood, used to inform and validate Earth system models, and reconcile differences between land surface model- and atmospheric-based estimates of CH4 emissions.

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