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Yangang Liu, Peter H. Daum, R. McGraw, and R. Wood

Abstract

Existing Sundqvist-type parameterizations, which only consider dependence of the autoconversion rate on cloud liquid water content, are generalized to explicitly account for the droplet concentration and relative dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution as well. The generalized Sundqvist-type parameterization includes the more commonly used Kessler-type parameterization as a special case, unifying the two different types of parameterizations for the autoconversion rate. The generalized Sundqvist-type parameterization is identical with the Kessler-type parameterization presented in Part I beyond the autoconversion threshold, but exhibits a more realistic, smooth transition in the vicinity of the autoconversion threshold (threshold behavior) in contrast to the discontinuously abrupt transition embodied in the Kessler-type parameterization. A new Sundqvist-type parameterization is further derived by applying the expression for the critical radius derived from the kinetic potential theory to the generalized Sundqvist-type parameterization. The new parameterization eliminates the need for defining the driving radius and for prescribing the critical radius associated with Kessler-type parameterizations. The two-part structure of the autoconversion process raises questions regarding model-based empirical parameterizations obtained by fitting simulation results from detailed collection models with a single function.

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