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R. A. Pielke Jr
,
C. Landsea
,
M. Mayfield
,
J. Layer
, and
R. Pasch

This paper reviews recent research on tropical cyclones and climate change from the perspective of event risk—the physical behavior of storms; vulnerability—the characteristics of a system that create the potential for impacts, but are independent of event risk; and also outcome risk—the integration of considerations of vulnerability with event risk to characterize an event that causes losses. The paper concludes that with no trend identified in various metrics of hurricane damage over the twentieth century, it is exceedingly unlikely that scientists will identify large changes in historical storm behavior that have significant societal implications, though scientists may identify discernible changes in storm behavior. Looking to the future, until scientists conclude a) that there will be changes to storms that are significantly larger than observed in the past, b) that such changes are correlated to measures of societal impact, and c) that the effects of such changes are significant in the context of inexorable growth in population and property at risk, then it is reasonable to conclude that the significance of any connection of human-caused climate change to hurricane impacts necessarily has been and will continue to be exceedingly small.

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M. B. Lawrence
,
B. M. Mayfield
,
L. A. Avila
,
R. J. Pasch
, and
E. N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season is described. There were eight tropical storms and 11 hurricanes for a total of 19 named tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin during 1995. This is the second-largest number of tropical storms and hurricanes in over 100 years of records. Thirteen named tropical cyclones affected land.

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Richard D. Knabb
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
John L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
,
Richard J. Pasch
, and
Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

The 2005 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is summarized, the individual tropical cyclones are described, and official track and intensity forecasts are verified and evaluated. The season’s overall activity was, by most measures, below average. While a near-average 15 tropical storms formed, many of them were relatively weak and short-lived. Seven of these storms became hurricanes, but only one reached major hurricane status (an intensity of 100 kt or greater on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale) in the eastern North Pacific basin. One of the hurricanes, Adrian, approached Central America in May but weakened to a tropical depression prior to landfall. Adrian was the only eastern North Pacific tropical cyclone to make landfall during 2005, and it was directly responsible for one fatality.

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John L. Beven II
,
Stacy R. Stewart
,
Miles B. Lawrence
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
James L. Franklin
, and
Richard J. Pasch

Abstract

Activity during the 2001 hurricane season was similar to that of the 2000 season. Fifteen tropical storms developed, with nine becoming hurricanes and four major hurricanes. Two tropical depressions failed to become tropical storms. Similarities to the 2000 season include overall activity much above climatological levels and most of the cyclones occurring over the open Atlantic north of 25°N. The overall “lateness” of the season was notable, with 11 named storms, including all the hurricanes, forming after 1 September. There were no hurricane landfalls in the United States for the second year in a row. However, the season's tropical cyclones were responsible for 93 deaths, including 41 from Tropical Storm Allison in the United States, and 48 from Hurricanes Iris and Michelle in the Caribbean.

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James L. Franklin
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
John L. Beven II
,
Miles B. Lawrence
,
Richard J. Pasch
, and
Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

The 2002 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is summarized and the year's tropical cyclones are described. The season featured 12 named tropical storms, of which 6 became hurricanes. Five of the six hurricanes reached an intensity of 100 kt or higher. There were two landfalling cyclones, Tropical Storm Julio and Hurricane Kenna. Kenna, which made landfall near San Blas, Mexico, with winds of near 120 kt, was responsible for four deaths.

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Lixion A. Avila
,
Richard J. Pasch
,
Jack L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
,
Miles B. Lawrence
,
Stacy R. Stewart
, and
Jiann-Gwo Jiing

Abstract

The 2001 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is reviewed. It was a near-average season in terms of the number of systems, with 15 named tropical cyclones of which 8 became hurricanes. One tropical cyclone made landfall in Mexico and two reached category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. A description of each named cyclone is provided, and track and intensity forecasts for the season are evaluated.

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Richard J. Pasch
,
Miles B. Lawrence
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
John L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
, and
Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season is summarized. Although the season's total of 12 named storms was above normal, many of these were weak and short-lived. Eight of the named cyclones made landfall in the United States, including Lili, the first hurricane to hit the United States in nearly 3 yr.

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John L. Beven II
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
James L. Franklin
,
Miles B. Lawrence
,
Richard J. Pasch
, and
Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

The tropical cyclone activity for 2003 in the eastern North Pacific hurricane basin is summarized. Activity during 2003 was slightly below normal. Sixteen tropical storms developed, seven of which became hurricanes. However, there were no major hurricanes in the basin for the first time since 1977. The first hurricane did not form until 24 August, the latest observed first hurricane at least since reliable satellite observations began in 1966. Five tropical cyclones made landfall on the Pacific coast of Mexico, resulting in 14 deaths.

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Miles B. Lawrence
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
John L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
,
Richard J. Pasch
, and
Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season is described. The season was very active, with 16 tropical storms, 7 of which became hurricanes. There were 49 deaths directly attributed to this year’s tropical cyclones.

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Miles B. Lawrence
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
Jack L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
,
Richard J. Pasch
, and
Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

There were 11 tropical storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 tropical depressions during the 2000 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Two tropical storms made landfall in Mexico.

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