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R. Penndorf

Abstract

The radius of the earth's shadow for ultraviolet sunlight is enlarged by an amount equal to the altitude of the upper boundary of the ozone layer. Among the effects of this ozone shadow are (1) a delay in ionization at sunrise in the ionosphere, from which the uppermost height of the ozone layer may be calculated, (2) variations in the intensity of ultraviolet light reflected from the moon during a lunar eclipse, furnishing information concerning the vertical distribution of ozone, (3) a premature decay in the intensity of the sodium D-line at sunset, leading to calulation of the height of emission of the D-line.

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R. Penndorf

Abstract

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R. Penndorf

Summary

The thermal structure of the stratosphere and ionosphere is more elaborate than has heretofore been assumed. No appreciable rise in temperature up to 30 km is indicated from direct observations. A temperature of + 50°C at a height of 50 km is supported by the results on anomalous sound propagation, and of research on ozone and meteors, as well as by the theory of atmospheric tides. At heights around 50 to 80 km, the temperature again falls to −70°C, and afterwards rises again to somewhere between + 60°C and + 160°C at a height of 100 km. At heights around 200 to 250 km, the temperature is probably between + 160°C and + 560°C. In the polar regions at 100 km, the temperature is about −40°C, showing the marked difference due to latitude. A new definition for the concept of temperature in the upper atmosphere is given, since allowance must be made for radiation density.

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R. Penndorf

Summary

The physical dimensions of the stratosphere, viz. pressure, density, number of molecules per cubic centimeter, mean free path, molecular speed, and number of impacts, have been calculated afresh. The pressure at 100 km agrees very well with the value found empirically, hence the conclusion that the stratosphere must be warm, and some earlier assumptions furnish the corresponding vertical distribution of temperature.

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H. Flohn and R. Penndorf
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H. Flohn and R. Penndorf

A suitable nomenclature for atmospheric strata as well as a clear definition of the boundaries is proposed. The necessity of such a new classification is stressed. The atmosphere is divided into an inner and an outer atmosphere; from the latter particles may escape. The inner atmosphere is divided into three spheres—troposphere, stratosphere, and ionosphere—with each sphere in turn being subdivided into 3 or 4 layers. The new classification is based upon the thermal structure of the atmosphere.' Boundaries of each layer are fixed by a sudden change of lapse rate.

The bottom layer, the ground layer, the advection layer, and the tropopause layer are subdivisions of the troposphere. The advantages gained by defining a separate tropopause layer as part of the troposphere are discussed in detail. Its upper boundary is assumed to be situated at 12 km over temperate latitudes. The stratosphere, consisting of an isothermal layer, a warm layer, and an upper mixing layer, extends from 12 to 80 km. The atmosphere between 80 and 800 km is occupied by the ionosphere, the subdivisions of which are the E-layer, the Flayer and the atomic layer. Above that height the exosphere exists.

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