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Y. L. Yung, J. P. Pinto, R. T. Watson, and S. P. Sander

Abstract

The role of bromine compounds in the photochemistry of the natural and perturbed stratosphere has been reexamined using an expanded reaction scheme and the results of recent laboratory studies of several key reactions. The most important finding is that through the reaction BrO + CIO → Br + Cl + O2, there is a synergistic effect between bromine and chlorine which results in an efficient catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. One-dimensional photochemical model results indicate that BrO is the major bromine species throughout the stratosphere, followed by BrONO2, HBr, HOBr and Br. We show from the foregoing that bromine is more efficient than chlorine as a catalyst for destroying ozone, and discuss the implications for stratospheric ozone of possible future growth in the industrial and agricultural use of bromine. Bromine concentrations of 20 pptv (2 × 10−11), as suggested by recent observations, can decrease the present-day integrated ozone column density by 2.4%, and can enhance ozone depletion from steady-state chlorofluoromethane release at 1973 rates by a factor of 1.1–1.2.

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David W. Stahle, Edward R. Cook, Dorian J. Burnette, Max C. A. Torbenson, Ian M. Howard, Daniel Griffin, Jose Villanueva Diaz, Benjamin I. Cook, A. Park Williams, Emma Watson, David J. Sauchyn, Neil Pederson, Connie A. Woodhouse, Gregory T. Pederson, David Meko, Bethany Coulthard, and Christopher J. Crawford

Abstract

Cool- and warm-season precipitation totals have been reconstructed on a gridded basis for North America using 439 tree-ring chronologies correlated with December–April totals and 547 different chronologies correlated with May–July totals. These discrete seasonal chronologies are not significantly correlated with the alternate season; the December–April reconstructions are skillful over most of the southern and western United States and north-central Mexico, and the May–July estimates have skill over most of the United States, southwestern Canada, and northeastern Mexico. Both the strong continent-wide El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal embedded in the cool-season reconstructions and the Arctic Oscillation signal registered by the warm-season estimates faithfully reproduce the sign, intensity, and spatial patterns of these ocean–atmospheric influences on North American precipitation as recorded with instrumental data. The reconstructions are included in the North American Seasonal Precipitation Atlas (NASPA) and provide insight into decadal droughts and pluvials. They indicate that the sixteenth-century megadrought, the most severe and sustained North American drought of the past 500 years, was the combined result of three distinct seasonal droughts, each bearing unique spatial patterns potentially associated with seasonal forcing from ENSO, the Arctic Oscillation, and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Significant 200–500-yr-long trends toward increased precipitation have been detected in the cool- and warm-season reconstructions for eastern North America. These seasonal precipitation changes appear to be part of the positive moisture trend measured in other paleoclimate proxies for the eastern area that began as a result of natural forcing before the industrial revolution and may have recently been enhanced by anthropogenic climate change.

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J. C. Doran, S. Abbott, J. Archuleta, X. Bian, J. Chow, R. L. Coulter, S. F. J. de Wekker, S. Edgerton, S. Elliott, A. Fernandez, J. D. Fast, J. M. Hubbe, C. King, D. Langley, J. Leach, J. T. Lee, T. J. Martin, D. Martinez, J. L. Martinez, G. Mercado, V. Mora, M. Mulhearn, J. L. Pena, R. Petty, W. Porch, C. Russell, R. Salas, J. D. Shannon, W. J. Shaw, G. Sosa, L. Tellier, B. Templeman, J. G. Watson, R. White, C. D. Whiteman, and D. Wolfe

A boundary layer field experiment in the Mexico City basin during the period 24 February–22 March 1997 is described. A total of six sites were instrumented. At four of the sites, 915-MHz radar wind profilers were deployed and radiosondes were released five times per day. Two of these sites also had sodars collocated with the profilers. Radiosondes were released twice per day at a fifth site to the south of the basin, and rawinsondes were flown from another location to the northeast of the city three times per day. Mixed layers grew to depths of 2500–3500 m, with a rapid period of growth beginning shortly before noon and lasting for several hours. Significant differences between the mixed-layer temperatures in the basin and outside the basin were observed. Three thermally and topographically driven flow patterns were observed that are consistent with previously hypothesized topographical and thermal forcing mechanisms. Despite these features, the circulation patterns in the basin important for the transport and diffusion of air pollutants show less day-to-day regularity than had been anticipated on the basis of Mexico City's tropical location, high altitude and strong insolation, and topographical setting.

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