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R. Venkatesan, M. Möllmann-Coers, and A. Natarajan

Abstract

Atmospheric dispersion code system SPEEDI (System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) has been applied to simulate the field experiments conducted over a complex terrain. A diagnostic mass-consistent wind field model of the code system simulates the flow over an isolated hill using the routinely measured data from sodars and a meteorological tower. An objective basis for the adjustment of the horizontal and vertical wind components has been incorporated in the model, and the results show a great improvement in modeling the flow past the hill. Calculated profiles of the vertical velocity component around the hill have been compared with those observed by the sodars. The model streamlines show close agreement with the tetroon trajectory and the ground-level concentration patterns. Dispersion calculations are carried out using a Lagrangian particle random walk model. The dispersion algorithm is modified in order to utilize the observed turbulence data instead of the conventional Pasquill–Gifford method, and the former scheme performs better in simulating the concentration distribution. Results suggest that the accuracy of the code system improves significantly when all these changes are introduced.

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

Abstract

Cyclone Phailin, which developed over the Bay of Bengal in October 2013, was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to make landfall in India. We study the response of the salinity-stratified north Bay of Bengal to Cyclone Phailin with the help of hourly observations from three open-ocean moorings 200 km from the cyclone track, a mooring close to the cyclone track, daily sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aquarius, and a one-dimensional model. Before the arrival of Phailin, moored observations showed a shallow layer of low-salinity water lying above a deep, warm “barrier” layer. As the winds strengthened, upper-ocean mixing due to enhanced vertical shear of storm-generated currents led to a rapid increase of near-surface salinity. Sea surface temperature (SST) cooled very little, however, because the prestorm subsurface ocean was warm. Aquarius SSS increased by 1.5–3 psu over an area of nearly one million square kilometers in the north Bay of Bengal. A one-dimensional model, with initial conditions and surface forcing based on moored observations, shows that cyclone winds rapidly eroded the shallow, salinity-dominated density stratification and mixed the upper ocean to 40–50-m depth, consistent with observations. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that changes in ocean mixed layer temperature in response to Cyclone Phailin are small. A nearly isothermal, salinity-stratified barrier layer in the prestorm upper ocean has two effects. First, near-surface density stratification reduces the depth of vertical mixing. Second, mixing is confined to the nearly isothermal layer, resulting in little or no SST cooling.

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K. Jossia Joseph, Amit Tandon, R. Venkatesan, J. Thomas Farrar, and Robert A. Weller

Abstract

The inception of a moored buoy network in the northern Indian Ocean in 1997 paved the way for systematic collection of long-term time series observations of meteorological and oceanographic parameters. This buoy network was revamped in 2011 with Ocean Moored buoy Network for north Indian Ocean (OMNI) buoys fitted with additional sensors to better quantify the air–sea fluxes. An intercomparison of OMNI buoy measurements with the nearby Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) mooring during the year 2015 revealed an overestimation of downwelling longwave radiation (LWR↓). Analysis of the OMNI and WHOI radiation sensors at a test station at National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) during 2019 revealed that the accurate and stable amplification of the thermopile voltage records along with the customized datalogger in the WHOI system results in better estimations of LWR↓. The offset in NIOT measured LWR↓ is estimated first by segregating the LWR↓ during clear-sky conditions identified using the downwelling shortwave radiation measurements from the same test station, and second, finding the offset by taking the difference with expected theoretical clear-sky LWR↓. The corrected LWR↓ exhibited good agreement with that of collocated WHOI measurements, with a correlation of 0.93. This method is applied to the OMNI field measurements and again compared with the nearby WHOI mooring measurements, exhibiting a better correlation of 0.95. This work has led to the revamping of radiation measurements in OMNI buoys and provides a reliable method to correct past measurements and improve estimation of air–sea fluxes in the Indian Ocean.

Significance Statement

Downwelling longwave radiation (LWR↓) is an important climate variable for calculating air–sea heat exchange and quantifying Earth’s energy budget. An intercomparison of LWR↓ measurements between ocean observing platforms in the north Indian Ocean revealed a systematic offset in National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) Ocean Moored buoy Network for north Indian Ocean (OMNI) buoys. The observed offset limited our capability to accurately estimate air–sea fluxes in the Indian Ocean. The sensor measurements were compared with a standard reference system, which revealed problems in thermopile amplifier as the root cause of the offset. This work led to the development of a reliable method to correct the offset in LWR↓ and revamping of radiation measurements in NIOT-OMNI buoys. The correction is being applied to the past measurements from 12 OMNI buoys over 8 years to improve the estimation of air–sea fluxes in the Indian Ocean.

Open access
Patrick Minnis, David R. Doelling, Louis Nguyen, Walter F. Miller, and Venkatesan Chakrapani

Abstract

Several recent research satellites carry self-calibrating multispectral imagers that can be used for calibrating operational imagers lacking complete self-calibrating capabilities. In particular, the visible (VIS, 0.65 μm) channels on operational meteorological satellites are generally calibrated before launch, but require vicarious calibration techniques to monitor the gains and offsets once they are in orbit. To ensure that the self-calibrating instruments are performing as expected, this paper examines the consistencies between the VIS channel (channel 1) reflectances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites and the version 5a and 6 reflectances of the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission using a variety of techniques. These include comparisons of Terra and Aqua VIS radiances with coincident broadband shortwave radiances from the well-calibrated Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), time series of deep convective cloud (DCC) albedos, and ray-matching intercalibrations between each of the three satellites. Time series of matched Terra and VIRS data, Aqua and VIRS data, and DCC reflected fluxes reveal that an older version (version 5a, ending in early 2004) of the VIRS calibration produced a highly stable record, while the latest version (version 6) appears to overestimate the sensor gain change by ∼1% yr−1 as the result of a manually induced gain adjustment. Comparisons with the CERES shortwave radiances unearthed a sudden change in the Terra MODIS calibration that caused a 1.17% decrease in the gain on 19 November 2003 that can be easily reversed. After correction for these manual adjustments, the trends in the VIRS and Terra channels are no greater than 0.1% yr−1. Although the results were more ambiguous, no statistically significant trends were found in the Aqua MODIS channel 1 gain. The Aqua radiances are 1% greater, on average, than their Terra counterparts, and after normalization are 4.6% greater than VIRS radiances, in agreement with theoretical calculations. The discrepancy between the two MODIS instruments should be taken into account to ensure consistency between parameters derived from them. With the adjustments, any of the three instruments can serve as references for calibrating other satellites. Monitoring of the calibrations continues in near–real time and the results are available via the World Wide Web.

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P. A. Francis, A. K. Jithin, J. B. Effy, A. Chatterjee, K. Chakraborty, A. Paul, B. Balaji, S. S. C. Shenoi, P. Biswamoy, A. Mukherjee, P. Singh, B. Deepsankar, S. Siva Reddy, P. N. Vinayachandran, M. S. Girish Kumar, T. V. S. Udaya Bhaskar, M. Ravichandran, A. S. Unnikrishnan, D. Shankar, A. Prakash, S. G. Aparna, R. Harikumar, K. Kaviyazhahu, K. Suprit, R. V. Shesu, N. Kiran Kumar, N. Srinivasa Rao, K. Annapurnaiah, R. Venkatesan, A. S. Rao, E. N. Rajagopal, V. S. Prasad, M. D. Gupta, T. M. Balakrishnan Nair, E. P. R. Rao, and B. V. Satyanarayana
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P. A. Francis, A. K. Jithin, J. B. Effy, A. Chatterjee, K. Chakraborty, A. Paul, B. Balaji, S. S. C. Shenoi, P. Biswamoy, A. Mukherjee, P. Singh, B. Deepsankar, S. Siva Reddy, P. N. Vinayachandran, M. S. Girish Kumar, T. V. S. Udaya Bhaskar, M. Ravichandran, A. S. Unnikrishnan, D. Shankar, A. Prakash, S. G. Aparna, R. Harikumar, K. Kaviyazhahu, K. Suprit, R. V. Shesu, N. Kiran Kumar, N. Srinivasa Rao, K. Annapurnaiah, R. Venkatesan, A. S. Rao, E. N. Rajagopal, V. S. Prasad, M. D. Gupta, T. M. Balakrishnan Nair, E. P. R. Rao, and B. V. Satyanarayana

Abstract

A good understanding of the general circulation features of the oceans, particularly of the coastal waters, and ability to predict the key oceanographic parameters with good accuracy and sufficient lead time are necessary for the safe conduct of maritime activities such as fishing, shipping, and offshore industries. Considering these requirements and buoyed by the advancements in the field of ocean modeling, data assimilation, and ocean observation networks along with the availability of the high-performance computational facility in India, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services has set up a “High-Resolution Operational Ocean Forecast and Reanalysis System” (HOOFS) with an aim to provide accurate ocean analysis and forecasts for the public, researchers, and other types of users like navigators and the Indian Coast Guard. Major components of HOOFS are (i) a suite of numerical ocean models configured for the Indian Ocean and the coastal waters using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) for forecasting physical and biogeochemical state of the ocean and (ii) the data assimilation based on local ensemble transform Kalman filter that assimilates in situ and satellite observations in ROMS. Apart from the routine forecasts of key oceanographic parameters, a few important applications such as (i) Potential Fishing Zone forecasting system and (ii) Search and Rescue Aid Tool are also developed as part of the HOOFS project. The architecture of HOOFS, an account of the quality of ocean analysis and forecasts produced by it and important applications developed based on HOOFS are briefly discussed in this article.

Free access
Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, Debasis Sengupta, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Andrew J. Lucas, J. Thomas Farrar, Rajib Chattopadhyay, Simon de Szoeke, Maria Flatau, Adam Rydbeck, Hemantha Wijesekera, Michael McPhaden, Hyodae Seo, Aneesh Subramanian, R Venkatesan, Jossia Joseph, S. Ramsundaram, Arnold L. Gordon, Shannon M. Bohman, Jaynise Pérez, Iury T. Simoes-Sousa, Steven R. Jayne, Robert E. Todd, G. S. Bhat, Matthias Lankhorst, Tamara Schlosser, Katherine Adams, S. U. P Jinadasa, Manikandan Mathur, M. Mohapatra, E. Pattabhi Rama Rao, A. K. Sahai, Rashmi Sharma, Craig Lee, Luc Rainville, Deepak Cherian, Kerstin Cullen, Luca R. Centurioni, Verena Hormann, Jennifer MacKinnon, Uwe Send, Arachaporn Anutaliya, Amy Waterhouse, Garrett S. Black, Jeremy A. Dehart, Kaitlyn M. Woods, Edward Creegan, Gad Levy, Lakshmi H. Kantha, and Bulusu Subrahmanyam

Abstract

In the Bay of Bengal, the warm, dry boreal spring concludes with the onset of the summer monsoon and accompanying southwesterly winds, heavy rains, and variable air–sea fluxes. Here, we summarize the 2018 monsoon onset using observations collected through the multinational Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Bay of Bengal (MISO-BoB) program between the United States, India, and Sri Lanka. MISO-BoB aims to improve understanding of monsoon intraseasonal variability, and the 2018 field effort captured the coupled air–sea response during a transition from active-to-break conditions in the central BoB. The active phase of the ∼20-day research cruise was characterized by warm sea surface temperature (SST > 30°C), cold atmospheric outflows with intermittent heavy rainfall, and increasing winds (from 2 to 15 m s−1). Accumulated rainfall exceeded 200 mm with 90% of precipitation occurring during the first week. The following break period was both dry and clear, with persistent 10–12 m s−1 wind and evaporation of 0.2 mm h−1. The evolving environmental state included a deepening ocean mixed layer (from ∼20 to 50 m), cooling SST (by ∼1°C), and warming/drying of the lower to midtroposphere. Local atmospheric development was consistent with phasing of the large-scale intraseasonal oscillation. The upper ocean stores significant heat in the BoB, enough to maintain SST above 29°C despite cooling by surface fluxes and ocean mixing. Comparison with reanalysis indicates biases in air–sea fluxes, which may be related to overly cool prescribed SST. Resolution of such biases offers a path toward improved forecasting of transition periods in the monsoon.

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Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, Debasis Sengupta, Harindra J.S. Fernando, Andrew J. Lucas, J. Thomas Farrar, Rajib Chattopadhyay, Simon de Szoeke, Maria Flatau, Adam Rydbeck, Hemantha Wijesekera, Michael McPhaden, Hyodae Seo, Aneesh Subramanian, R Venkatesan, Jossia Joseph, S. Ramsundaram, Arnold L. Gordon, Shannon M. Bohman, Jaynise Pérez, Iury T. Simoes-Sousa, Steven R. Jayne, Robert E. Todd, G.S. Bhat, Matthias Lankhorst, Tamara Schlosser, Katherine Adams, S.U.P Jinadasa, Manikandan Mathur, M. Mohapatra, E. Pattabhi Rama Rao, A. K. Sahai, Rashmi Sharma, Craig Lee, Luc Rainville, Deepak Cherian, Kerstin Cullen, Luca R. Centurioni, Verena Hormann, Jennifer MacKinnon, Uwe Send, Arachaporn Anutaliya, Amy Waterhouse, Garrett S. Black, Jeremy A. Dehart, Kaitlyn M. Woods, Edward Creegan, Gad Levy, Lakshmi H Kantha, and Bulusu Subrahmanyam

Abstract

In the Bay of Bengal, the warm, dry boreal spring concludes with the onset of the summer monsoon and accompanying southwesterly winds, heavy rains, and variable air-sea fluxes. Here, we summarize the 2018 monsoon onset using observations collected through the multinational Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Bay of Bengal (MISO-BoB) program between the US, India, and Sri Lanka. MISO-BoB aims to improve understanding of monsoon intraseasonal variability, and the 2018 field effort captured the coupled air-sea response during a transition from active-to-break conditions in the central BoB. The active phase of the ~20-day research cruise was characterized by warm sea surface temperature (SST > 30°C), cold atmospheric outflows with intermittent heavy rainfall, and increasing winds (from 2 to 15 m s−1). Accumulated rainfall exceeded 200 mm with 90% of precipitation occurring during the first week. The following break period was both dry and clear, with persistent 10−12 m s−1 wind and evaporation of 0.2 mm h−1. The evolving environmental state included a deepening ocean mixed layer (from ~20 to 50 m), cooling SST (by ~ 1°C), and warming/drying of the lower to mid-troposphere. Local atmospheric development was consistent with phasing of the large-scale intraseasonal oscillation. The upper ocean stores significant heat in the BoB, enough to maintain SST above 29°C despite cooling by surface fluxes and ocean mixing. Comparison with reanalysis indicates biases in air-sea fluxes, which may be related to overly cool prescribed SST. Resolution of such biases offers a path toward improved forecasting of transition periods in the monsoon.

Full access