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Imke Durre, Mona Behl, Rebecca Haacker, and Redina Herman

Abstract

In 2014, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) conducted the latest in its sequence of surveys of its membership. Included in the survey were a number of questions pertaining to the value that members derive from the Society’s products and services. Asked to classify the value of their AMS membership dues as “excellent,” “satisfactory,” or “not good value,” 93% chose at least “satisfactory,” including 36% who selected “excellent.” The three most frequently cited reasons for joining the AMS were attendance at meetings, access to publications, and staying informed. Consistent with these reasons, AMS-sponsored scientific conferences, AMS journals, and BAMS were found to be at least somewhat valuable to more than 90% of survey participants. Those who expressed some level of dissatisfaction cited as reasons the cost of membership dues, travel and registration costs associated with AMS conferences, or a feeling of not being included in the Society. These findings may be pertinent to the Society’s long-term planning for its offering of products and services.

Open access
Don Wuebbles, Piers Forster, Helen Rogers, and Redina Herman

Metrics such as radiative forcing and global warming potential have proven to be useful tools in climate policy–related studies, including evaluation of the effects of aviation on climate, to relate different emissions to one another in order to maximize the application of mitigation policies and their benefits. In order to be an effective tool for policymakers and their communication with scientists and industry, a metric should be easy to use and as scientifically well grounded as possible. Thus, the best metrics will be simple and will include uncertainties that reflect the state of knowledge in order to give users confidence in their scientific quality. A concern with developing new metrics is the need to weigh their applicability against the ease of understanding the results. Radiative forcing is commonly used in analyses of aviation effects on climate and is integral to other metrics, but it has known deficiencies. Well-recognized metrics like global warming potential and global temperature potential are dependent on radiative forcing but also have their own advantages and recognized limitations. Simplified integrated assessment modeling may eventually represent a useful alternative to such metrics. The objective of this study is to examine the capabilities and limitations of current climate metrics in the context of the aviation impact on climate change, to analyze key uncertainties associated with these metrics and, to the extent possible, to make recommendations on future research and development of metrics to gauge aviation-induced climate change that could potentially affect decision making, including aircraft design and operations.

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Donna J. Charlevoix, Rajul Pandya, Alison Bridger, Thomas E. Gill, Elaine Hampton, Redina Herman, John Knox, Wen-Whai Li, and Diane Stanitski
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