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Reginald E. Newell
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Reginald E. Newell

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The meridional transport of relative angular momentum by transient eddies is computed from the wind data so far available from the Meteorological Rocket Network for the 25–60 km region. The transport is northward in winter and apparently of sufficient magnitude to account for the formation of the winter polar vortex. It is suggested that the eddies arise in response to the differential heating within the region produced by radiational effects. Zonal available potential energy and its generation are calculated and compared with the kinetic energy. The transformation of eddy kinetic energy to zonal kinetic energy is of the same order of magnitude as the generation of zonal available potential energy. The importance of eddy structures as compared with mean meridional motions appears to be similar to the earlier findings for the troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is concluded that the region from 25–60 km may generate its own kinetic energy in situ in winter and be essentially energetically independent of the troposphere.

An alternative explanation for the high temperature of the winter polar mesosphere based upon considerations concerning the eddies is put forward.

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Reginald E. Newell

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No abstract available.

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Reginald E. Newell

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Reginald E. Newell

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A different view of El Niño is proposed, namely, that it represents an approach towards the tropical equilibrium temperature of approximately 30°C, set essentially by evaporation, by the waters of the eastern tropical Pacific.

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Reginald E. Newell and Jane Hsiung

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Recent estimates of oceanic meridional energy flux are compared with previous work and shown to he somewhat smaller and have a different annual cycle. When combined with temperature gradient data they show a down-gradient flux in the Pacific and Indian oceans between the hemispheres and possibly a similar flux at 1 5°N. Elsewhere there is no significant association between these quantities and therefore parameterization of the oceanic flux by the temperature gradient is not appropriate.

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Jane Hsiung and Reginald E. Newell

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Thirty-five million ship reports for the period 1949–79 have been used to construct global, monthly-mean sea surface temperature fields for 5° × 5° latitude-longitude regions. The monthly means have been subjected to eigenvector analysis to bring out the nonseasonal modes of variation. The El Niño mode is the most important and its eigenvector time series is identical to that found previously by Weare et al. for the Pacific alone. Addition of data from the other oceans adds unexplained variance so that the percentage of the variance explained by the El Niño mode is smaller in the global case than for the Pacific alone. The second most important eigenvector pattern shows evidence of a cooling trend for the North Pacific and North Atlantic in the 1964–79 period. This is in agreement with previous work an zonal-mean sea surface temperature by the authors, with recent work on the North Pacific by Douglas et al. and with a polar-cap cooling in the lower troposphere for the same period reported by Boer and Higuchi.

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Yong Zhu and Reginald E. Newell

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A new algorithm is applied to study water vapor fluxes in the troposphere using wind and moisture data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The fluxes are divided into filamentary structures known as tropospheric rivers and what are termed here broad fields. The results show that the tropospheric rivers may carry essentially the total meridional transport observed in the extratropical atmosphere but may occupy only about 10% of the total longitudinal length at a given latitude. The transient fluxes in traditional studies do not catch the filamentary structures completely and may therefore underestimate the fraction of transport assigned to moving systems, as well as omitting the geographical concentration. The mean flow and eddy fluxes evaluated by the new algorithm are considered to be more physically realistic.

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Reginald E. Newell and Daniel J. Gauntner

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Measurements of carbon monoxide made in the equatorial upper troposphere on a Pan American flight around the world accomplished in under three days show large changes with longitude that are interpreted as direct evidence of interhemispheric mixing.

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Reginald E. Newell and Daniel J. Gauntner

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No abstract available.

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