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Reginald E. Newell

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Reginald E. Newell

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Reginald E. Newell

Abstract

The meridional transport of relative angular momentum by transient eddies is computed from the wind data so far available from the Meteorological Rocket Network for the 25–60 km region. The transport is northward in winter and apparently of sufficient magnitude to account for the formation of the winter polar vortex. It is suggested that the eddies arise in response to the differential heating within the region produced by radiational effects. Zonal available potential energy and its generation are calculated and compared with the kinetic energy. The transformation of eddy kinetic energy to zonal kinetic energy is of the same order of magnitude as the generation of zonal available potential energy. The importance of eddy structures as compared with mean meridional motions appears to be similar to the earlier findings for the troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is concluded that the region from 25–60 km may generate its own kinetic energy in situ in winter and be essentially energetically independent of the troposphere.

An alternative explanation for the high temperature of the winter polar mesosphere based upon considerations concerning the eddies is put forward.

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Reginald E. Newell
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Reginald E. Newell

Abstract

A different view of El Niño is proposed, namely, that it represents an approach towards the tropical equilibrium temperature of approximately 30°C, set essentially by evaporation, by the waters of the eastern tropical Pacific.

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Yong Zhu
and
Reginald E. Newell

Abstract

A new algorithm is applied to study water vapor fluxes in the troposphere using wind and moisture data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The fluxes are divided into filamentary structures known as tropospheric rivers and what are termed here broad fields. The results show that the tropospheric rivers may carry essentially the total meridional transport observed in the extratropical atmosphere but may occupy only about 10% of the total longitudinal length at a given latitude. The transient fluxes in traditional studies do not catch the filamentary structures completely and may therefore underestimate the fraction of transport assigned to moving systems, as well as omitting the geographical concentration. The mean flow and eddy fluxes evaluated by the new algorithm are considered to be more physically realistic.

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Reginald E. Newell
and
Daniel J. Gauntner

Abstract

Measurements of carbon monoxide made in the equatorial upper troposphere on a Pan American flight around the world accomplished in under three days show large changes with longitude that are interpreted as direct evidence of interhemispheric mixing.

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Reginald E. Newell
and
Thomas G. Dopplick

Abstract

Estimates of the atmospheric temperature changes due to a doubling of CO2 concentrations have been with a static radiative flux model. They yield temperature changes >0.25 K. It appears that the much larger changes predicted by other models arise from additional water vapor evaporated into the atmosphere and not from the CO2 itself.

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Reginald E. Newell
and
Thomas G. Dopplick

Abstract

Estimates of the atmospheric temperature changes due to a doubling of CO2 concentrations have been with a static radiative flux model. They yield temperature changes >0.25 K. It appears that the much larger changes predicted by other models arise from additional water vapor evaporated into the atmosphere and not from the CO2 itself.

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Reginald E. Newell
and
Daniel J. Gauntner

Abstract

No abstract available.

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