Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Rei Chemke x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Rei Chemke and Yohai Kaspi

Abstract

The latitudinal width of atmospheric eddy-driven jets and scales of macroturbulence are examined latitude by latitude over a wide range of rotation rates using a high-resolution idealized GCM. It is found that for each latitude, through all rotation rates, the jet spacing scales with the Rhines scale. These simulations show the presence of a “supercriticality latitude” within the baroclinic zone, where poleward (equatorward) of this latitude, the Rhines scale is larger (smaller) than the Rossby deformation radius. Poleward of this latitude, a classic geostrophic turbulence picture appears with a − spectral slope of inverse cascade from the deformation radius up to the Rhines scale. A shallower slope than the −3 slope of enstrophy cascade is found from the deformation radius down to the viscosity scale as a result of the broad input of baroclinic eddy kinetic energy. At these latitudes, eddy–eddy interactions transfer barotropic eddy kinetic energy from the input scales of baroclinic eddy kinetic energy up to the jet scale and down to smaller scales. For the Earth case, this latitude is outside the baroclinic zone and therefore an inverse cascade does not appear. Equatorward of the supercriticality latitude, the − slope of inverse cascade vanishes, eddy–mean flow interactions play an important role in the balance, and the spectrum follows a −3 slope from the Rhines scale down to smaller scales, similar to what is observed on Earth. Moreover, the length scale of the energy-containing zonal wavenumber is equal to (larger than) the jet scale poleward (equatorward) of the supercriticality latitude.

Full access
Rei Chemke and Yohai Kaspi

Abstract

The effect of eddy–eddy interactions on zonal and meridional macroturbulent scales is investigated over a wide range of eddy scales, using high-resolution idealized GCM simulations with and without eddy–eddy interactions. The wide range of eddy scales is achieved through systematic variation of the planetary rotation rate and thus multiple-jet planets. It is found that not only are eddy–eddy interactions not essential for the formation of jets, but the existence of eddy–eddy interactions decreases the number of eddy-driven jets in the atmosphere. The eddy–eddy interactions have little effect on the jet scale, which in both types of simulations coincides with the Rhines scale through all latitudes. The decrease in the number of jets in the presence of eddy–eddy interactions occurs because of the narrowing of the latitudinal region where zonal jets appear. This narrowing occurs because eddy–eddy interactions are mostly important at latitudes poleward of where the Rhines scale is equal to the Rossby deformation radius. Thus, once eddy–eddy interactions are removed, the conversion from baroclinic to barotropic eddy kinetic energy increases, and eddy–mean flow interactions intrude into these latitudes and maintain additional jets there. The eddy–eddy interactions are found to increase the energy-containing zonal scale so it coincides with the jets’ scale and thus make the flow more isotropic. While the conversion scale coincides with the most unstable scale, the Rossby deformation radius does not provide a good indication to these scales in both types of simulations.

Full access
Rei Chemke and Guy Dagan

Abstract

The large uncertainty in estimating the global aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is one of the major challenges the climate community faces for climate projection. While the global-mean ARF may affect global quantities such as surface temperature, its spatial distribution may result in local thermodynamical and, thus, dynamical changes. Future changes in aerosol emissions distribution could further modulate the atmospheric circulation. Here, the effects of the spatial distribution of the direct anthropogenic ARF are studied using an idealized global circulation model, forced by a range of estimated-ARF amplitudes, based on the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service data. The spatial distribution of the estimated-ARF is globally decomposed, and the effects of the different modes on the circulation are studied. The most dominant spatial distribution feature is the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere in comparison to the Southern Hemisphere. This induces a negative meridional temperature gradient around the equator, which modulates the mean fields in the tropics. The ITCZ weakens and shifts southward, and the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere Hadley cell strengthens (weakens). The localization of the ARF in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes shifts the subtropical jet poleward and strengthens both the eddy-driven jet and Ferrel cell, because of the weakening of high-latitude eddy fluxes. Finally, the larger aerosol concentration in Asia compared to North America results in an equatorial superrotating jet. Understanding the effects of the different modes on the general circulation may help elucidate the circulation’s future response to the projected changes in ARF distribution.

Full access
Rei Chemke and Lorenzo M. Polvani

Abstract

Future emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere are projected to result in significant circulation changes. One of the most important changes is the widening of the tropical belt, which has great societal impacts. Several mechanisms (changes in surface temperature, eddy phase speed, tropopause height, and static stability) have been proposed to explain this widening. However, the coupling between these mechanisms has precluded elucidating their relative importance. Here, the abrupt quadrupled-CO2 simulations of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are used to examine the proposed mechanisms. The different time responses of the different mechanisms allow us to disentangle and evaluate them. As suggested by earlier studies, the Hadley cell edge is found to be linked to changes in subtropical baroclinicity. In particular, its poleward shift is accompanied by an increase in subtropical static stability (i.e., a decrease in temperature lapse rate) with increased CO2 concentrations. These subtropical changes also affect the eddy momentum flux, which shifts poleward together with the Hadley cell edge. Transient changes in tropopause height, eddy phase speed, and surface temperature, however, were found not to accompany the poleward shift of the Hadley cell edge. The widening of the Hadley cell, together with the increase in moisture content, accounts for most of the expansion of the dry zone. Eddy moisture fluxes, on the other hand, are found to play a minor role in the expansion of the dry zone.

Full access