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Richard F. Davis

Abstract

The accuracy of a spectral, clear-sky model to predict hourly global irradiance was investigated using radiation and meteorological observations collected at the Seattle-Tacoma airport between 1 January 1988 and 31 October 1991. The model was first run using the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere values as inputs, then using the local atmospheric conditions. Clear-sky irradiance values generated by both atmospheres, standard and local, were attenuated using local cloud cover observations for comparison with measured irradiance. Values and trends of the statistical descriptors for the two atmospheres were almost identical. Overall, the model overestimated observed irradiance by less than 6%. Cloud cover was the major source of deviation between the modeled and observed values. The close correspondence between the two model runs suggests that the U.S. standard atmosphere, in conjunction with global cloud datasets, can be used in spectral models to generate irradiance at remote locations.

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Dennis Baldocchi
,
Eva Falge
,
Lianhong Gu
,
Richard Olson
,
David Hollinger
,
Steve Running
,
Peter Anthoni
,
Ch. Bernhofer
,
Kenneth Davis
,
Robert Evans
,
Jose Fuentes
,
Allen Goldstein
,
Gabriel Katul
,
Beverly Law
,
Xuhui Lee
,
Yadvinder Malhi
,
Tilden Meyers
,
William Munger
,
Walt Oechel
,
K. T. Paw U
,
Kim Pilegaard
,
H. P. Schmid
,
Riccardo Valentini
,
Shashi Verma
,
Timo Vesala
,
Kell Wilson
, and
Steve Wofsy

FLUXNET is a global network of micrometeorological flux measurement sites that measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. At present over 140 sites are operating on a long-term and continuous basis. Vegetation under study includes temperate conifer and broadleaved (deciduous and evergreen) forests, tropical and boreal forests, crops, grasslands, chaparral, wetlands, and tundra. Sites exist on five continents and their latitudinal distribution ranges from 70°N to 30°S.

FLUXNET has several primary functions. First, it provides infrastructure for compiling, archiving, and distributing carbon, water, and energy flux measurement, and meteorological, plant, and soil data to the science community. (Data and site information are available online at the FLUXNET Web site, http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET/.) Second, the project supports calibration and flux intercomparison activities. This activity ensures that data from the regional networks are intercomparable. And third, FLUXNET supports the synthesis, discussion, and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops, and visiting scientists. The overarching goal is to provide information for validating computations of net primary productivity, evaporation, and energy absorption that are being generated by sensors mounted on the NASA Terra satellite.

Data being compiled by FLUXNET are being used to quantify and compare magnitudes and dynamics of annual ecosystem carbon and water balances, to quantify the response of stand-scale carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities to controlling biotic and abiotic factors, and to validate a hierarchy of soil–plant–atmosphere trace gas exchange models. Findings so far include 1) net CO2 exchange of temperate broadleaved forests increases by about 5.7 g C m−2 day−1 for each additional day that the growing season is extended; 2) the sensitivity of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to sunlight doubles if the sky is cloudy rather than clear; 3) the spectrum of CO2 flux density exhibits peaks at timescales of days, weeks, and years, and a spectral gap exists at the month timescale; 4) the optimal temperature of net CO2 exchange varies with mean summer temperature; and 5) stand age affects carbon dioxide and water vapor flux densities.

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Robert J. H. Dunn
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Olivier Bock
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Michael G. Bosilovich
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S. A. Buehler
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Laura Castia
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Hanne H. Christiansen
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John R. Christy
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E.-S. Chung
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Melanie Coldewey-Egbers
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Owen R. Cooper
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Richard C. Cornes
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Curt Covey
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J.-F. Cretaux
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M. Crotwell
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Sean M. Davis
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Richard A. M. de Jeu
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Doug Degenstein
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R. Delaloye
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Larry Di Girolamo
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Markus G. Donat
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Wouter A. Dorigo
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Imke Durre
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Geoff S. Dutton
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Gregory Duveiller
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James W. Elkins
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Vitali E. Fioletov
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Johannes Flemming
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Michael J. Foster
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Stacey M. Frith
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Lucien Froidevaux
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Matthew Gentry
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S. K. Gupta
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Ian Harris
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Xin Lan
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Takmeng Wong
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Xinjia Zhou
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Xungang Yin
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Lin Zhao
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Imke Durre
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