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Richard M. Forbes
and
Maike Ahlgrimm

Abstract

Supercooled liquid water (SLW) layers in boundary layer clouds are abundantly observed in the atmosphere at high latitudes, but remain a challenge to represent in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models. Unresolved processes such as small-scale turbulence and mixed-phase microphysics act to maintain the liquid layer at cloud top, directly affecting cloud radiative properties and prolonging cloud lifetimes. This paper describes the representation of supercooled liquid water in boundary layer clouds in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global NWP model and in particular the change from a diagnostic temperature-dependent mixed phase to a prognostic representation with separate cloud liquid and ice variables. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Alaska and from the CloudSat/Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite missions are used to evaluate the model parameterizations. The prognostic scheme shows a more realistic cloud structure, with an SLW layer at cloud top and ice falling out below. However, because of the limited vertical and horizontal resolution and uncertainties in the parameterization of physical processes near cloud top, the change leads to an overall reduction in SLW water with a detrimental impact on shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, and increased 2-m temperature errors over land. A reduction in the ice deposition rate at cloud top significantly improves the SLW occurrence and radiative impacts, and highlights the need for improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes for mixed-phase cloud in large-scale models.

Full access
Maike Ahlgrimm
,
Richard M. Forbes
,
Jean-Jacques Morcrette
, and
Roel A. J. Neggers
Full access
Linette N. Boisvert
,
Melinda A. Webster
,
Chelsea L. Parker
, and
Richard M. Forbes

Abstract

The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere on Earth, and with these warming temperatures, there is likely to be more precipitation falling as rain. This precipitation phase change will have profound impacts on the hydrologic cycle, energy balance, and snow and sea ice mass budgets. Here, we examine the number of rainfall days in the Arctic from three reanalyses, ERA-Interim, ERA5, and MERRA-2, over 1980–2016. We show that the number of rainfall days has increased over this period, predominantly in the autumn and in the North Atlantic and peripheral seas, and the length of the rain season has increased in all reanalyses. This is positively correlated to the number of days with above freezing air temperatures and a lengthening of the warm season. ERA-Interim produces significantly more rainfall days than other reanalyses and CloudSat observations, as well as significantly more rainfall when temperatures are below freezing. Investigation into the cloud microphysics schemes revealed that the scheme employed by ERA-Interim allowed for mixed-phase clouds to form rain at temperatures below freezing following a temperature-dependent phase partitioning function between 250 and 273 K. This simple diagnostic treatment erroneously overestimates rain at temperatures below 273 K and produces unrealistic rainfall compared to ERA5 and MERRA-2. This work highlights the importance of having accurate physics and improving microphysical schemes in models for simulating precipitation in the Arctic and the caution that is warranted for interpreting reanalysis trends.

Restricted access
Humphrey W. Lean
,
Peter A. Clark
,
Mark Dixon
,
Nigel M. Roberts
,
Anna Fitch
,
Richard Forbes
, and
Carol Halliwell

Abstract

With many operational centers moving toward order 1-km-gridlength models for routine weather forecasting, this paper presents a systematic investigation of the properties of high-resolution versions of the Met Office Unified Model for short-range forecasting of convective rainfall events. The authors describe a suite of configurations of the Met Office Unified Model running with grid lengths of 12, 4, and 1 km and analyze results from these models for a number of convective cases from the summers of 2003, 2004, and 2005. The analysis includes subjective evaluation of the rainfall fields and comparisons of rainfall amounts, initiation, cell statistics, and a scale-selective verification technique. It is shown that the 4- and 1-km-gridlength models often give more realistic-looking precipitation fields because convection is represented explicitly rather than parameterized. However, the 4-km model representation suffers from large convective cells and delayed initiation because the grid length is too long to correctly reproduce the convection explicitly. These problems are not as evident in the 1-km model, although it does suffer from too numerous small cells in some situations. Both the 4- and 1-km models suffer from poor representation at the start of the forecast in the period when the high-resolution detail is spinning up from the lower-resolution (12 km) starting data used. A scale-selective precipitation verification technique implies that for later times in the forecasts (after the spinup period) the 1-km model performs better than the 12- and 4-km models for lower rainfall thresholds. For higher thresholds the 4-km model scores almost as well as the 1-km model, and both do better than the 12-km model.

Full access
Keith A. Browning
,
Alan M. Blyth
,
Peter A. Clark
,
Ulrich Corsmeier
,
Cyril J. Morcrette
,
Judith L. Agnew
,
Sue P. Ballard
,
Dave Bamber
,
Christian Barthlott
,
Lindsay J. Bennett
,
Karl M. Beswick
,
Mark Bitter
,
Karen E. Bozier
,
Barbara J. Brooks
,
Chris G. Collier
,
Fay Davies
,
Bernhard Deny
,
Mark A. Dixon
,
Thomas Feuerle
,
Richard M. Forbes
,
Catherine Gaffard
,
Malcolm D. Gray
,
Rolf Hankers
,
Tim J. Hewison
,
Norbert Kalthoff
,
Samiro Khodayar
,
Martin Kohler
,
Christoph Kottmeier
,
Stephan Kraut
,
Michael Kunz
,
Darcy N. Ladd
,
Humphrey W. Lean
,
Jürgen Lenfant
,
Zhihong Li
,
John Marsham
,
James McGregor
,
Stephan D. Mobbs
,
John Nicol
,
Emily Norton
,
Douglas J. Parker
,
Felicity Perry
,
Markus Ramatschi
,
Hugo M. A. Ricketts
,
Nigel M. Roberts
,
Andrew Russell
,
Helmut Schulz
,
Elizabeth C. Slack
,
Geraint Vaughan
,
Joe Waight
,
David P. Wareing
,
Robert J. Watson
,
Ann R. Webb
, and
Andreas Wieser

The Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) is an international project to understand precisely where, when, and how convective clouds form and develop into showers in the mainly maritime environment of southern England. A major aim of CSIP is to compare the results of the very high resolution Met Office weather forecasting model with detailed observations of the early stages of convective clouds and to use the newly gained understanding to improve the predictions of the model.

A large array of ground-based instruments plus two instrumented aircraft, from the U.K. National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and the German Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK), Karlsruhe, were deployed in southern England, over an area centered on the meteorological radars at Chilbolton, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. In addition to a variety of ground-based remote-sensing instruments, numerous rawinsondes were released at one- to two-hourly intervals from six closely spaced sites. The Met Office weather radar network and Meteosat satellite imagery were used to provide context for the observations made by the instruments deployed during CSIP.

This article presents an overview of the CSIP field campaign and examples from CSIP of the types of convective initiation phenomena that are typical in the United Kingdom. It shows the way in which certain kinds of observational data are able to reveal these phenomena and gives an explanation of how the analyses of data from the field campaign will be used in the development of an improved very high resolution NWP model for operational use.

Full access
J. K. Andersen
,
Liss M. Andreassen
,
Emily H. Baker
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
Jason E. Box
,
L. Britt
,
R. Brown
,
David Burgess
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
L. M. Farquharson
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Jack Kohler
,
Zachary Labe
,
Carol Ladd
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Bryant Loomis
,
Bartłomiej Luks
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
J. M. Marsh
,
Walt Meier
,
Twila A. Moon
,
Thomas Mote
,
L. Mudryk
,
F. J. Mueter
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
Shad O’Neel
,
James E. Overland
,
Don Perovich
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Martha K. Raynolds
,
C. H. Reijmer
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
E. A. G. Schuur
,
Martin Sharp
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
C. J. P. P. Smeets
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Marco Tedesco
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
J. T. Thorson
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Dirk van As
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Øyvind Winton
,
Gabriel J. Wolken
,
K. Wood
,
Bert Wouters
, and
S. Zador
Free access
T. A. Moon
,
R. Thoman
,
M. L. Druckenmiller
,
Brandon Ahmasuk
,
Stacia A. Backensto
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Rasmus Benestad
,
Logan. T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Siiri Bigalke
,
W. BjerkeJarle
,
Brian Brettschneider
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
Judah L. Cohen
,
Bertrand Decharme
,
Chris Derksen
,
Dmitry Divine
,
Jensen Drost
,
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Alesksandra EliasChereque
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
(JJ)
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
Ketil Isaksen
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
Timothy Jones
,
Robb S.A. Kaler
,
Lars Kaleschke
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Zachary M. Labe
,
Rick Lader
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Jackie Lindsey
,
Bryant D. Loomis
,
Kari Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
Jostein Mamen
,
Ken D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
Stephanie A. McAfee
,
James W. McClelland
,
Walter N. Meier
,
Twila A. Moon
,
G. W. K. Moore
,
Thomas L. Mote
,
Lawrence Mudryk
,
Rolf Müller
,
Kelsey E. Nyland
,
James E. Overland
,
Julia K. Parrish
,
Donald K. Perovich
,
Guðrún Nína Petersen
,
Alek Petty
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Kristin Poinar
,
Mika Rantanen
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
Shawn P. Serbin
,
Mark C. Serreze
,
Gay Sheffield
,
Alexander I. Shiklomanov
,
Nikolay I. Shiklomanov
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Robert G. M. Spencer
,
Dmitry A. Streletskiy
,
Anya Suslova
,
Tove Svendby
,
Suzanne E. Tank
,
Marco Tedesco
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
Xiangshan Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mikhail Tretiakov
,
(Skip)
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Adrian Wehrlé
,
Dedi Yang
,
Scott Zolkos
,
Jessicca Allen
,
Amy V. Camper
,
Bridgette O. Haley
,
Gregory Hammer
,
S. Love-Brotak
,
Laura Ohlmann
,
Lukas Noguchi
,
Deborah B. Riddle
, and
Sara W. Veasey
Open access
Richard L. Thoman
,
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Twila A. Moon
,
L. M. Andreassen
,
E. Baker
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
L.N. Boisvert
,
Jason E. Box
,
B. Brettschneider
,
D. Burgess
,
Amy H. Butler
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
Dmitry Divine
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
Chereque A. Elias
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Christian Haas
,
Edward Hanna
,
-Bauer Inger Hanssen
,
M. M. P. D. Heijmans
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
C. D. Jensen
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
J. Kohler
,
Niels J. Korsgaard
,
Zachary Labe
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Simon H. Lee
,
Bryant Loomis
,
B. Luks
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
R. Í Magnússon
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
Walter N. Meier
,
Thomas Mote
,
Lawrence Mudryk
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
James E. Overland
,
F. Pálsson
,
T. Park
,
C. L. Parker
,
Don Perovich
,
Alek Petty
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
J. E. Pinzon
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
S. P. Serbin
,
G. Sheffield
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
K. M. Stafford
,
A. Steer
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Tove Svendby
,
Marco Tedesco
,
L. Thomson
,
T. Thorsteinsson
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mark Tschudi
,
C. J. Tucker
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
A. Wehrlé
,
Øyvind Winton
,
G. Wolken
,
K. Wood
,
B. Wouters
, and
D. Yang
Free access
Tim Boyer
,
Ellen Bartow-Gillies
,
A. Abida
,
Melanie Ades
,
Robert Adler
,
Susheel Adusumilli
,
W. Agyakwah
,
Brandon Ahmasuk
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Mihai Alexe
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Richard P. Allan
,
Adam Allgood
,
Lincoln. M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
John Anderson
,
B. Andrade
,
Orlane Anneville
,
Yasuyuki Aono
,
Anthony Arguez
,
Carlo Arosio
,
C. Atkinson
,
John A. Augustine
,
Grinia Avalos
,
Cesar Azorin-Molina
,
Stacia A. Backensto
,
Stephan Bader
,
Julian Baez
,
Rebecca Baiman
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Alison F. Banwell
,
M. Yu Bardin
,
Jonathan Barichivich
,
John E. Barnes
,
Sandra Barreira
,
Rebecca L. Beadling
,
Hylke E. Beck
,
Emily J. Becker
,
E. Bekele
,
Guillem Martín Bellido
,
Nicolas Bellouin
,
Angela Benedetti
,
Rasmus Benestad
,
Christine Berne
,
Logan. T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
A. E. Bhuiyan
,
Siiri Bigalke
,
Tiago Biló
,
Peter Bissolli
,
W. Bjerke Jarle
,
Kevin Blagrave
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Eric S. Blake
,
Stephen Blenkinsop
,
Jessica Blunden
,
Oliver Bochníček
,
Olivier Bock
,
Xavier Bodin
,
Michael Bosilovich
,
Olivier Boucher
,
Deniz Bozkurt
,
Brian Brettschneider
,
Francis G. Bringas
,
Francis Bringas
,
Dennis Buechler
,
Stefan A. Buehler
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Suzana J. Camargo
,
Jayaka Campbell
,
Diego Campos
,
Laura Carrea
,
Brendan R. Carter
,
Ivona Cetinić
,
Don P. Chambers
,
Duo Chan
,
Elise Chandler
,
Kai-Lan Chang
,
Hua Chen
,
Lin Chen
,
Lijing Cheng
,
Vincent Y. S. Cheng
,
Leah Chomiak
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
John R. Christy
,
Eui-Seok Chung
,
Laura M. Ciasto
,
Leonardo Clarke
,
Kyle R. Clem
,
Scott Clingan
,
Caio A.S. Coelho
,
Judah L. Cohen
,
Melanie Coldewey-Egbers
,
Steve Colwell
,
Owen R. Cooper
,
Richard C. Cornes
,
Kris Correa
,
Felipe Costa
,
Curt Covey
,
Lawrence Coy
,
Jean-François Créatux
,
Lenka Crhova
,
Theresa Crimmins
,
Meghan F. Cronin
,
Thomas Cropper
,
Molly Crotwell
,
Joshua Culpepper
,
Ana P. Cunha
,
Diego Cusicanqui
,
Rajashree T. Datta
,
Sean M. Davis
,
Veerle De Bock
,
Richard A. M. de Jeu
,
Jos De Laat
,
Bertrand Decharme
,
Doug Degenstein
,
Reynald Delaloye
,
Mesut Demircan
,
Chris Derksen
,
Ricardo Deus
,
K. R. Dhurmea
,
Howard J. Diamond
,
S. Dirkse
,
Dmitry Divine
,
Martin T. Dokulil
,
Markus G. Donat
,
Shenfu Dong
,
Wouter A. Dorigo
,
Caroline Drost Jensen
,
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Paula Drumond
,
Marcel du Plessis
,
Hilary A. Dugan
,
Dashkhuu Dulamsuren
,
Devon Dunmire
,
Robert J. H. Dunn
,
Imke Durre
,
Geoff Dutton
,
Gregory Duveiller
,
Mithat Ekici
,
Alesksandra Elias Chereque
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
Jhan-Carlo Espinoza
,
Thomas W. Estilow
,
Nicole Estrella
,
Nicolas Fauchereau
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Richard A. Feely
,
Chris Fenimore
,
David Fereday
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
vitali E. Fioletov
,
Johannes Flemming
,
Chris Fogarty
,
Ryan L. Fogt
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Michael J. Foster
,
Bryan A. Franz
,
Natalie M. Freeman
,
Helen A. Fricker
,
Stacey M. Frith
,
Lucien Froidevaux
,
(JJ)
,
Steven Fuhrman
,
Martin Füllekrug
,
Catherine Ganter
,
Meng Gao
,
Alex S. Gardner
,
Judith Garforth
,
Jay Garg
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Badin Gibbes
,
Sarah T. Gille
,
John Gilson
,
Karin Gleason
,
Nadine Gobron
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Stanley B. Goldenberg
,
Gustavo Goni
,
Steven Goodman
,
Atsushi Goto
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Alexander Gruber
,
Guojun Gu
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
S. Hagos
,
Sebastian Hahn
,
Leopold Haimberger
,
Bradley D. Hall
,
Benjamin D. Hamlington
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Daniel S. Harnos
,
Ian Harris
,
Qiong He
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Sverker Hellström
,
Deborah L. Hemming
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
J. Hicks
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
Martin Hirschi
,
(Ben)
,
W. Hobbs
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Robert Holzworth
,
Filip Hrbáček
,
Guojie Hu
,
Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Boyin Huang
,
Hongjie Huang
,
Dale F. Hurst
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
Antje Inness
,
Ketil Isaksen
,
Masayoshi Ishii
,
Gerardo Jadra
,
Svetlana Jevrejeva
,
Viju O. John
,
W. Johns
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
Bryan Johnson
,
Gregory C. Johnson
,
Philip D. Jones
,
Timothy Jones
,
Simon A. Josey
,
G. Jumaux
,
Robert Junod
,
Andreas Kääb
,
K. Kabidi
,
Johannes W. Kaiser
,
Robb S.A. Kaler
,
Lars Kaleschke
,
Viktor Kaufmann
,
Amin Fazl Kazemi
,
Linda M. Keller
,
Andreas Kellerer-Pirklbauer
,
Mike Kendon
,
John Kennedy
,
Elizabeth C. Kent
,
Kenneth Kerr
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Richard Kidd
,
Mi Ju Kim
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Zak Kipling
,
Philip J. Klotzbach
,
John A. Knaff
,
Akash Koppa
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
Benjamin M. Kraemer
,
Natalya A. Kramarova
,
A. C. Kruger
,
Andries Kruger
,
Arun Kumar
,
Michelle L’Heureux
,
Sofia La Fuente
,
Alo Laas
,
Zachary M. Labe
,
Rick Lader
,
Mónika Lakatos
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Xin Lan
,
Peter Landschützer
,
Chris W. Landsea
,
Timothy Lang
,
Matthias Lankhorst
,
Kathleen O. Lantz
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
David A. Lavers
,
Matthew A. Lazzara
,
Thierry Leblanc
,
Tsz-Cheung Lee
,
Eric M. Leibensperger
,
Chris Lennard
,
Eric Leuliette
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Jan L. Lieser
,
Tanja Likso
,
I-I. Lin
,
Jackie Lindsey
,
Yakun Liu
,
Ricardo Locarnini
,
Norman G. Loeb
,
Bryant D. Loomis
,
Andrew M. Lorrey
,
Diego Loyola
,
Rui Lu
,
Rick Lumpkin
,
Jing-Jia Luo
,
Kari Luojus
,
John M. Lyman
,
Stephen C. Maberly
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
Michael MacFerrin
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Abstract

—J. BLUNDEN, T. BOYER, AND E. BARTOW-GILLIES

Earth’s global climate system is vast, complex, and intricately interrelated. Many areas are influenced by global-scale phenomena, including the “triple dip” La Niña conditions that prevailed in the eastern Pacific Ocean nearly continuously from mid-2020 through all of 2022; by regional phenomena such as the positive winter and summer North Atlantic Oscillation that impacted weather in parts the Northern Hemisphere and the negative Indian Ocean dipole that impacted weather in parts of the Southern Hemisphere; and by more localized systems such as high-pressure heat domes that caused extreme heat in different areas of the world. Underlying all these natural short-term variabilities are long-term climate trends due to continuous increases since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the atmospheric concentrations of Earth’s major greenhouse gases.

In 2022, the annual global average carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere rose to 417.1±0.1 ppm, which is 50% greater than the pre-industrial level. Global mean tropospheric methane abundance was 165% higher than its pre-industrial level, and nitrous oxide was 24% higher. All three gases set new record-high atmospheric concentration levels in 2022.

Sea-surface temperature patterns in the tropical Pacific characteristic of La Niña and attendant atmospheric patterns tend to mitigate atmospheric heat gain at the global scale, but the annual global surface temperature across land and oceans was still among the six highest in records dating as far back as the mid-1800s. It was the warmest La Niña year on record. Many areas observed record or near-record heat. Europe as a whole observed its second-warmest year on record, with sixteen individual countries observing record warmth at the national scale. Records were shattered across the continent during the summer months as heatwaves plagued the region. On 18 July, 104 stations in France broke their all-time records. One day later, England recorded a temperature of 40°C for the first time ever. China experienced its second-warmest year and warmest summer on record. In the Southern Hemisphere, the average temperature across New Zealand reached a record high for the second year in a row. While Australia’s annual temperature was slightly below the 1991–2020 average, Onslow Airport in Western Australia reached 50.7°C on 13 January, equaling Australia's highest temperature on record.

While fewer in number and locations than record-high temperatures, record cold was also observed during the year. Southern Africa had its coldest August on record, with minimum temperatures as much as 5°C below normal over Angola, western Zambia, and northern Namibia. Cold outbreaks in the first half of December led to many record-low daily minimum temperature records in eastern Australia.

The effects of rising temperatures and extreme heat were apparent across the Northern Hemisphere, where snow-cover extent by June 2022 was the third smallest in the 56-year record, and the seasonal duration of lake ice cover was the fourth shortest since 1980. More frequent and intense heatwaves contributed to the second-greatest average mass balance loss for Alpine glaciers around the world since the start of the record in 1970. Glaciers in the Swiss Alps lost a record 6% of their volume. In South America, the combination of drought and heat left many central Andean glaciers snow free by mid-summer in early 2022; glacial ice has a much lower albedo than snow, leading to accelerated heating of the glacier. Across the global cryosphere, permafrost temperatures continued to reach record highs at many high-latitude and mountain locations.

In the high northern latitudes, the annual surface-air temperature across the Arctic was the fifth highest in the 123-year record. The seasonal Arctic minimum sea-ice extent, typically reached in September, was the 11th-smallest in the 43-year record; however, the amount of multiyear ice—ice that survives at least one summer melt season—remaining in the Arctic continued to decline. Since 2012, the Arctic has been nearly devoid of ice more than four years old.

In Antarctica, an unusually large amount of snow and ice fell over the continent in 2022 due to several landfalling atmospheric rivers, which contributed to the highest annual surface mass balance, 15% to 16% above the 1991–2020 normal, since the start of two reanalyses records dating to 1980. It was the second-warmest year on record for all five of the long-term staffed weather stations on the Antarctic Peninsula. In East Antarctica, a heatwave event led to a new all-time record-high temperature of −9.4°C—44°C above the March average—on 18 March at Dome C. This was followed by the collapse of the critically unstable Conger Ice Shelf. More than 100 daily low sea-ice extent and sea-ice area records were set in 2022, including two new all-time annual record lows in net sea-ice extent and area in February.

Across the world’s oceans, global mean sea level was record high for the 11th consecutive year, reaching 101.2 mm above the 1993 average when satellite altimetry measurements began, an increase of 3.3±0.7 over 2021. Globally-averaged ocean heat content was also record high in 2022, while the global sea-surface temperature was the sixth highest on record, equal with 2018. Approximately 58% of the ocean surface experienced at least one marine heatwave in 2022. In the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand’s longest continuous marine heatwave was recorded.

A total of 85 named tropical storms were observed during the Northern and Southern Hemisphere storm seasons, close to the 1991–2020 average of 87. There were three Category 5 tropical cyclones across the globe—two in the western North Pacific and one in the North Atlantic. This was the fewest Category 5 storms globally since 2017. Globally, the accumulated cyclone energy was the lowest since reliable records began in 1981. Regardless, some storms caused massive damage. In the North Atlantic, Hurricane Fiona became the most intense and most destructive tropical or post-tropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada’s history, while major Hurricane Ian killed more than 100 people and became the third costliest disaster in the United States, causing damage estimated at $113 billion U.S. dollars. In the South Indian Ocean, Tropical Cyclone Batsirai dropped 2044 mm of rain at Commerson Crater in Réunion. The storm also impacted Madagascar, where 121 fatalities were reported.

As is typical, some areas around the world were notably dry in 2022 and some were notably wet. In August, record high areas of land across the globe (6.2%) were experiencing extreme drought. Overall, 29% of land experienced moderate or worse categories of drought during the year. The largest drought footprint in the contiguous United States since 2012 (63%) was observed in late October. The record-breaking megadrought of central Chile continued in its 13th consecutive year, and 80-year record-low river levels in northern Argentina and Paraguay disrupted fluvial transport. In China, the Yangtze River reached record-low values. Much of equatorial eastern Africa had five consecutive below-normal rainy seasons by the end of 2022, with some areas receiving record-low precipitation totals for the year. This ongoing 2.5-year drought is the most extensive and persistent drought event in decades, and led to crop failure, millions of livestock deaths, water scarcity, and inflated prices for staple food items.

In South Asia, Pakistan received around three times its normal volume of monsoon precipitation in August, with some regions receiving up to eight times their expected monthly totals. Resulting floods affected over 30 million people, caused over 1700 fatalities, led to major crop and property losses, and was recorded as one of the world’s costliest natural disasters of all time. Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Petrópolis received 530 mm in 24 hours on 15 February, about 2.5 times the monthly February average, leading to the worst disaster in the city since 1931 with over 230 fatalities.

On 14–15 January, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai submarine volcano in the South Pacific erupted multiple times. The injection of water into the atmosphere was unprecedented in both magnitude—far exceeding any previous values in the 17-year satellite record—and altitude as it penetrated into the mesosphere. The amount of water injected into the stratosphere is estimated to be 146±5 Terragrams, or ∼10% of the total amount in the stratosphere. It may take several years for the water plume to dissipate, and it is currently unknown whether this eruption will have any long-term climate effect.

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