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Eric S. Johnson, Lloyd A. Regier, and Robert A. Knox

Abstract

Continuous velocity measurements from a shipboard Doppler acoustic long on the NORPAX shuttle experiment in the central equatorial Pacific are presented. The time mean of these velocities shows the classical zonal equatorial currents as well as their meridional circulation. The velocities are used with concurrent CTD data to examine the geostrophic balance of zonal currents in the upper 117 m. Estimates of the errors of the acoustic data are produced from a comparison between that data and concurrent profiling current-meter data, and are used to establish the reliability of the balances observed. Both the time mean and the time varying balances are investigated, as well as the departures from geostrophic balance. The mean zonal velocities between 4°S and 10°N are found to be in approximate geostrophic balance. Departures from geostrophy in the mean are observed near the surface at the equator. The meridional advection of meridional momentum appears to be only partly responsible for this departure. The time varying flow was partly geostrophic poleward of 1°, but not so equatorward. A large excess of geostrophic velocity variance (relative to observed velocity variance) exists near the equator, probably due to high frequency internal wave signals in the density data. North of 4°N an excess of observed velocity variance was found, due probably to near-internal waves. In both latitude bands the fluctuating departures from geostrophy are probably to near-inertial waves. In both latitude bands the fluctuating departures from geostrophy are probably balanced by meridional acceleration. More than sufficient acceleration exists near the equator to account for the observed imbalance, while in the North Equatorial Countercurrent the acceleration is barely sufficient, implying a close balance between acceleration and nongeostrophic pressure gradients.

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David Halpern, Robert A. Knox, and Douglas S. Luther

Abstract

Prominent oscillations of the meridional current, with a mean period of approximately 20 days, have been observed in the upper ocean over several years from May 1979 to October 1985 using moored current measurements along the Pacific equator at 95°, 110°, 124°,140°W and 152°W, as well as off (but near) the equator at 110° and 140°W. The fluctuations are relatively narrowband (±0.005 cpd) in frequency. A 95% statistically significant peak in power spectra of meridional current occurred at 110°, 124° and 140°W, but not at 95° and 152°W where the spectral peaks were smaller. The dominant wave period decreased by about 4% from 110° to 140°W. Maximum amplitude was measured at 124°W; the amplitude above 80 m was maximum at the equator and decreased poleward from the equator. At 15 m the annual averaged root-mean-square amplitude was about 20.5 cm s−1, and individual peak-to-trough values reached 150 cm s−1. The wave amplitude decreased with depth and the wave was essentially confined to the upper 80 m. The penetration depth of the oscillation was greatest at 110° and least at 140°W. At the equator the motion was essentially rectilinear, and at the off-equatorial sites the current vector rotated anticyclonically. Estimates of westward phase speeds were 81 and 93 cm s−1, the longitudinal wavelengths along the equator were about 1320 and 1600 km. The amplitude was seasonally and El Niño modulated, with the waves absent during March to May and during the onset of the 1982–83 El Niño when on both occasions the westward flowing South Equatorial Current at the equator was substantially reduced. Even during intervals of intense wave activity, the mean Richardson number was lowered by only about 15%, but remained above ¼. There was no evidence that the 0.05 cpd waves were directly generated by the local surface wind.

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John A. Knox, Jared A. Rackley, Alan W. Black, Vittorio A. Gensini, Michael Butler, Corey Dunn, Taylor Gallo, Melyssa R. Hunter, Lauren Lindsey, Minh Phan, Robert Scroggs, and Synne Brustad

Using publicly available information gleaned from over 1700 found-and-returned objects on the “Pictures and Documents found after the 27 April 2011 Tornadoes” Facebook page, the authors have created a database of 934 objects lofted by at least 15 different tornadoes during the 27 April 2011 Super Outbreak in the southeast United States. Analysis of the takeoff and landing points of these objects using GIS and high-resolution numerical trajectory modeling techniques extends previous work on this subject that used less specific information for much smaller sets of tracked tornado debris. It was found that objects traveled as far as 353 km, exceeding the previous record for the longest documented tornado debris trajectory. While the majority of debris trajectories were 10° to the left of the average tornado track vector, the longest trajectories exhibited a previously undocumented tendency toward the right of the average tornado track vector. Based on results from a high-resolution trajectory model, a relationship between this tendency and the altitude of lofting of debris is hypothesized, with the debris reaching the highest altitudes taking the rightmost trajectories. The paper concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of using social media information for meteorological research.

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