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Robert G. Stone
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Robert G. Stone
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Robert G. Stone
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Robert G. Stone
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Robert G. Stone
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Robert G. Stone
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ROBERT G. STONE and SALVATORE PAGLIUCA

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Ellsworth G. Dutton, Robert S. Stone, Donald W. Nelson, and Bernard G. Mendonca

Abstract

Incoming global solar irradiance measured at the surface at the South Pole unexpectedly decreased steadily by 15% from 1976 through 1987 during the late austral summer season, whereas no trend is apparent for September through December. February's irradiance trend, − 1.24% yr−1 on the average, is statistically significant at greater than the 99.9% confidence level. The irradiance observations were made continuously with the same calibrated sensor and are confirmed by a second simultaneous solar irradiance measurement series. Associated changes in seasonal sky cover (clouds) and surface air temperature were also observed. Seasonally increasing cloud cover is directly associated with the decreasing irradiance trends, whereas temperatures show a warming trend significant only in March, followed by a cooling trend significant only in May. Cloudiness and temperature records for 32 years suggest that the observed cloudiness trend began in the late 1970s, while the temperature trends become apparent only in the early 1980s. The observed sensitivity of total global solar irradiance to the change in sky cover is roughly six percent per one-tenth and is shown to vary spectrally. Although the annual averages of solar irradiance at the South Pole display an overall decrease between 1976 and 1989, the most recent years in this period show some recovery from earlier declines. Likewise, the downward trends in January and February irradiance diminished in 1988 and 1989.

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Taneil Uttal, Sandra Starkweather, James R. Drummond, Timo Vihma, Alexander P. Makshtas, Lisa S. Darby, John F. Burkhart, Christopher J. Cox, Lauren N. Schmeisser, Thomas Haiden, Marion Maturilli, Matthew D. Shupe, Gijs De Boer, Auromeet Saha, Andrey A. Grachev, Sara M. Crepinsek, Lori Bruhwiler, Barry Goodison, Bruce McArthur, Von P. Walden, Edward J. Dlugokencky, P. Ola G. Persson, Glen Lesins, Tuomas Laurila, John A. Ogren, Robert Stone, Charles N. Long, Sangeeta Sharma, Andreas Massling, David D. Turner, Diane M. Stanitski, Eija Asmi, Mika Aurela, Henrik Skov, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Aki Virkkula, Andrew Platt, Eirik J. Førland, Yoshihiro Iijima, Ingeborg E. Nielsen, Michael H. Bergin, Lauren Candlish, Nikita S. Zimov, Sergey A. Zimov, Norman T. O’Neill, Pierre F. Fogal, Rigel Kivi, Elena A. Konopleva-Akish, Johannes Verlinde, Vasily Y. Kustov, Brian Vasel, Viktor M. Ivakhov, Yrjö Viisanen, and Janet M. Intrieri

Abstract

International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) activities and partnerships were initiated as a part of the 2007–09 International Polar Year (IPY) and are expected to continue for many decades as a legacy program. The IASOA focus is on coordinating intensive measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected in the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, and Greenland to create synthesis science that leads to an understanding of why and not just how the Arctic atmosphere is evolving. The IASOA premise is that there are limitations with Arctic modeling and satellite observations that can only be addressed with boots-on-the-ground, in situ observations and that the potential of combining individual station and network measurements into an integrated observing system is tremendous. The IASOA vision is that by further integrating with other network observing programs focusing on hydrology, glaciology, oceanography, terrestrial, and biological systems it will be possible to understand the mechanisms of the entire Arctic system, perhaps well enough for humans to mitigate undesirable variations and adapt to inevitable change.

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