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Robert G. Watts

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Robert G. Watts

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Robert G. Watts

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Robert G. Watts

Abstract

Relaxation times and equilibrium temperatures and evaporation rates of stationary and falling water drops are predicted using beat and mass transfer analyses. Except possibly for very large drops the relaxation time is small and steady-state evaporation takes place over most of the lifetime of a drop. The steady-state temperature is equal to the wet-bulb temperature for both the stationary and the translating cases. The form of the ventilation coefficient measured by Kinzer and Gunn for low Reynolds number is predicted by an asymptotic theory of Acrivos and Taylor. Limiting analyses for heat transfer to spheres from fluids with high and low Prandtl numbers bracket the high Reynolds number data. Analytical expressions are suggested for predicting mass transfer rates at various Reynolds numbers.

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Robert G. Watts

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The calculation by Newell and Dopplick (1979) of atmospheric temperature change due to CO2 doubling yielded such a small increase because the analysis was incomplete. In fact, the method of calculation is itself of questionable utility because it is so sensitive to parameter errors. In simple climate models the heat balance at the tropopause is the most logical way to study the CO2-climate change problem.

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Robert G. Watts

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Zero-dimensional energy balance climate models that have appeared in the literature do not exhibit the same physical behavior as one-dimensional energy balance models. Although numerical values of such predicted quantities as the globally averaged surface temperature and its sensitivity to a solar constant change can be made nearly the same in the two model types, the physical mechanisms leading, for example, to the white earth solution when the solar constant is decreased below some critical lower limit are different. It is possible to formulate a global albedo for use in certain zero-dimensional models such that results obtained from zero- and one-dimensional models are both physically. and mathematically identical.

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Robert G. Watts and Iraj Farhi

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Relaxation times for stationary evaporating droplets are predicted. Since the steady state is reached most quickly in this case, the results yield an upper limit on the relaxation time.

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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Kenneth G. Hubbard, Dev Niyogi, Gordon Bonan, Peter Lawrence, Richard McNider, Clive McAlpine, Andres Etter, Samuel Gameda, Budong Qian, Andrew Carleton, Adriana Beltran-Przekurat, Thomas Chase, Arturo I. Quintanar, Jimmy O. Adegoke, Sajith Vezhapparambu, Glen Conner, Salvi Asefi, Elif Sertel, David R. Legates, Yuling Wu, Robert Hale, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Anthony Watts, Marshall Shepherd, Chandana Mitra, Valentine G. Anantharaj, Souleymane Fall, Robert Lund, Anna Treviño, Peter Blanken, Jinyang Du, Hsin-I Chang, Ronnie Leeper, Udaysankar S. Nair, Scott Dobler, Ravinesh Deo, and Jozef Syktus
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Britton B. Stephens, Matthew C. Long, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric A. Kort, Colm Sweeney, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Stuart Beaton, Jonathan D. Bent, Nicola J. Blake, James F. Bresch, Joanna Casey, Bruce C. Daube, Minghui Diao, Ernesto Diaz, Heidi Dierssen, Valeria Donets, Bo-Cai Gao, Michelle Gierach, Robert Green, Justin Haag, Matthew Hayman, Alan J. Hills, Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Jorgen B. Jensen, Rong-Rong Li, Ian McCubbin, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Morgan, Scott Nolte, Jordan G. Powers, Bryan Rainwater, Kaylan Randolph, Mike Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Katherine Smith, Mackenzie Smith, Jeff Stith, Gregory Stossmeister, Darin W. Toohey, and Andrew S. Watt

Abstract

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to improve observational constraints on the seasonal exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen with the Southern Ocean. The campaign also included measurements of anthropogenic and marine biogenic reactive gases; high-resolution, hyperspectral ocean color imaging of the ocean surface; and microphysical data relevant for understanding and modeling cloud processes. In each of these components of the ORCAS project, the campaign has significantly expanded the amount of observational data available for this remote region. Ongoing research based on these observations will contribute to advancing our understanding of this climatically important system across a range of topics including carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry and transport, and cloud physics. This article presents an overview of the scientific and methodological aspects of the ORCAS project and highlights early findings.

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