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Faisal S. Boudala, George A. Isaac, Robert W. Crawford, and Janti Reid

Abstract

A parameterization of runway visual range (RVR) has been developed using relevant meteorological parameters such as visibility (Vk), relative humidity (RH), temperature (T), precipitation intensity (PI), and precipitation type (PT) measured in years between 2009 and 2011 at Toronto Pearson International Airport during the Canadian Airport Nowcasting Project. The FD12P probe measured PI, Vk, and PT. The observed Vk and PT were tested against data reported by hourly surface observations (SAs). The measured Vk has correlated well with the SA with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.76 for Vk < 5 km, but the FD12P underestimated visibility by about 20% with a mean difference (MD) of about 196 m. For Vk < 2 km, the FD12P overestimated visibility by about 7% with an MD of 60 m. The SA reported slightly more snow events—22% as compared to 17%—but the FD12P reported many more snow grain cases than the SA. Both the SA and the FD12P reported rain at similar frequency—4% and 5%, respectively. Using a theoretical approach, a parameterization that can be used to determine RVR as a function of Vk has been developed. Using the observed T, RH, and dewpoint temperature (Td), a new parameterization for predicting Vk/RVR in fog has been also developed. These parameterizations agreed with observations (r ≈ 0.8). The parameterizations have been tested using the Canadian Environmental Multiscale Regional model. The results show that when PI, RH, and T are reasonably predicted and the fog events are correctly diagnosed, the model can be used to forecast RVR.

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Paul Joe, Stella Melo, William R. Burrows, Barbara Casati, Robert W. Crawford, Armin Deghan, Gabrielle Gascon, Zen Mariani, Jason Milbrandt, and Kevin Strawbridge

Abstract

The goal of the Canadian Arctic Weather Science (CAWS) project is to conduct research into the future operational monitoring and forecasting programs of Environment and Climate Change Canada in the Arctic where increased economic and recreational activities are expected with enhanced transportation and search and rescue requirements. Due to cost, remoteness and vast geographical coverage, the future monitoring concept includes a combination of space-based observations, sparse in situ surface measurements, and advanced reference sites. A prototype reference site has been established at Iqaluit, Nunavut (63°45'N, 68°33'W), that includes a Ka-band radar, water vapor lidars (both in-house and commercial versions), multiple Doppler lidars, ceilometers, radiation flux, and precipitation sensors. The scope of the project includes understanding of the polar processes, evaluating new technologies, validation of satellite products, validation of numerical weather prediction systems, development of warning products, and communication of their risk to a variety of users. This contribution will provide an overview of the CAWS project to show some preliminary results and to encourage collaborations.

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Paul Joe, Stella Melo, William R. Burrows, Barbara Casati, Robert W. Crawford, Armin Deghan, Gabrielle Gascon, Zen Mariani, Jason Milbrandt, and Kevin Strawbridge
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