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Roger A. Pielke

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Roger A. Pielke

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An eight-level three-dimensional primitive equation model which includes a detailed boundary layer parameterization scheme has been used to describe the initiation and evolution of sea-breeze convergence patterns over south Florida as a function of the surface heat and momentum fluxes and of the large-scale synoptic forcing. A minimum grid spacing of 11 km was used. Model results are presented for several different initial conditions and the results, when compared against cumulus cloud and shower patterns, demonstrate that the dry sea-breeze circulations are the dominant control on the locations of thunderstorm complexes over south Florida on undisturbed days.

It is also shown that, in contrast to the differential roughness, the differential heating between land and water over south Florida is the primary determinant of the magnitudes of convergence. The values of surface roughness, however, indirectly influence convergence patterns by affecting the intensity of the vertical turbulent transport of heat and momentum.

It is found that the sea breeze over south Florida accumulates synoptic-scale moisture in the convergence zones, since the magnitudes of moisture convergence are relatively unaffected by evaporation from the ocean at least for a period of 10 hours or so.

The results of the numerical experiments suggest that, in order to properly interpret the results of the Experimental Meteorology Laboratory's cloud-merger seeding experiments over south Florida, an appreciation and understanding of the sea-breeze circulations are required.

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Roger A. Pielke Sr.

Observations of the earth's heat budget provide a real-world constraint on the radiative forcing which is simulated in global climate change models. Assessments, such as the IPCC, would more effectively depict changes over time in the climate system by using a heat balance perspective in order to diagnose the earth's radiative imbalance. This commentary describes this approach and presents reasons such an assessment is valuable.

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Roger A. Pielke Jr

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The role of cumulus clouds in local, regional, and global weather and climate that is understood today is based to a large extent on the pioneering work of Joanne Simpson. Her involvement in this work is illustrated through the experiences as my career developed. She also was, and is, an ideal model of mentorship. This paper illustrates this model using my interactions during the 1970s and early 1980s, and how they have influenced research articles up to the present.

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Roger A. Pielke Jr.

In recent years, those who conduct federally funded research in the United States have been asked by their patrons, the public and their elected representatives, to demonstrate more efficacy with respect to societal needs. Although there is a long record of efforts to improve connections of research with societal needs, a problem exists in that in recent decades the production of scientific knowledge seems to have outrun its effective use by society. Current debate asks questions such as the following: In what different ways has society understood the connections of research with societal needs? What are the implications of such understandings for the structure and conduct of atmospheric sciences research? How can society (and especially sponsors of science) accurately and meaningfully assess the contributions of the atmospheric sciences to societal needs? This paper seeks to shed light on dimensions of these questions through discussion of the relationship of atmospheric sciences research with societal problems. Because the atmospheric sciences have an extended record of experience in connecting research with practical problems, the lessons of that experience have significance for current efforts to improve the relation of the atmospheric sciences with society's needs. In addition, these lessons have broader relevance for more general understandings of the evolving relationship of science and society.

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Roger A. Pielke

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Two-dimensional and three-dimensional sea breeze model results are compared for the same set of initial conditions and values of prescribed parameters. It is shown that with two-dimensional forcing, the two models produce identical results, but only when the explicit horizontal diffusion in the two-dimensional model is increased so as to account for resolvable scale fluxes which cannot be properly handled without including the third dimension. It is additionally demonstrated that a two-dimensional sea breeze model cannot produce accurate simulations of the sea breeze over south Florida even with added vertical resolution. The conclusion is made that for most practical simulations of the sea breeze, a full three-dimensional model is required.

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Roger A. Pielke
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Roger A. Pielke

Of all the scientific interests in the American Meteorological Society, none has more visibility to the public, or a more pronounced effect on man's day-to-day activities, than weather forecasting. In this paper, recent research on this important topic is briefly outlined and a number of suggested avenues of future work are discussed. At the end of the paper, specific recommendations regarding the manner in which weather information is disseminated are given.

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