Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: Rongcai Ren x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Yimin Liu, Guoxiong Wu, and Rongcai Ren

Abstract

Monthly mean reanalysis data and numerical experiments based on a climate model are employed to investigate the relative impacts of different types of diabatic heating and their synthetic effects on the formation of the summertime subtropical anticyclones. Results show that the strong land surface sensible heating (SE) on the west and condensation heating (CO) on the east over each continent generate cyclones in the lower layers and anticyclones in the upper layers, whereas radiative cooling over oceans generates the lower-layer anticyclone and upper-layer cyclone circulations. Such circulation patterns are interpreted in terms of the atmospheric adaptation to diabatic heating through a potential vorticity–potential temperature view. A Sverdrup balance is used to explain the zonally asymmetric configuration of the surface subtropical anticyclones. The strong deep CO that is maximized in the upper troposphere over the eastern continent and the adjacent ocean is accompanied by upper-tropospheric equatorward flow and weaker lower-tropospheric poleward flow, whereas the very strong longwave radiative cooling (LO) that is maximized near the top of the planetary boundary layer over the eastern ocean is accompanied by strong surface equatorward flow and weaker upper-layer poleward flow. The center of the surface subtropical anticyclone is then shifted toward the eastern ocean, and its zonal asymmetry is induced. This study concludes that in the summer subtropics over each continent and its adjacent oceans LO, SE, CO, and a double-dominant heating (D) from west to east compose a LOSECOD heating quadruplet. A specific zonal asymmetric circulation pattern is then formed in response to the LOSECOD quadruplet heating. The global summer subtropical heating and circulation can then be viewed as “mosaics” of such quadruplet heating and circulation patterns, respectively.

Full access
Jinggao Hu, Rongcai Ren, and Haiming Xu

Abstract

Based on the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset covering 1958–2012, this paper demonstrates a statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of major stratospheric sudden warming events (SSWs) in midwinter and the seasonal timing of stratospheric final warming events (SFWs) in spring. Specifically, early spring SFWs that on average occur in early March tend to be preceded by non-SSW winters, while late spring SFWs that on average take place up until early May are mostly preceded by SSW events in midwinter. Though the occurrence (absence) of SSW events in midwinter may not always be followed by late (early) SFWs in spring, there is a much higher (lower) probability of late SFWs than early SFWs in spring after SSW (non-SSW) winters, particularly when the winter SSWs occur no earlier than early January or in the period from late January to early February. Diagnosis shows that, corresponding to an SSW (non-SSW) winter and the following late (early)-SFW spring, intensity of planetary wave activity in the stratosphere tends to evolve out of phase from midwinter to the following spring, being anomalously stronger (weaker) in winter and anomalously weaker (stronger) in spring. Furthermore, the strengthening of the western Eurasian high, which appears during early to mid-January in late-SFW years but does not appear until late February to mid-March in early-SFW years, always precedes the strengthening of planetary wave activity in the stratosphere and thus acts as a tropospheric precursor to the seasonal timing of SFWs.

Full access
Rongcai Ren, Xin Xia, and Jian Rao

Abstract

This study uses the stratosphere-resolved Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to demonstrate the “independent” and “dependent” topographic forcing from the topography of East Asia (EA) and North America (NA), and their “joint” forcing in the northern winter stratosphere. The mutual interference between the EA and NA forcing is also demonstrated. Specifically, without EA, an independent NA can also, like EA, induce a severe polar warming and weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex. While EA favors a displacement of the polar vortex toward Eurasia, NA favors a displacement toward the North America–Atlantic region. However, the independent-EA-forced weakening effect on the polar vortex can be largely decreased and changes to a location displacement when NA exists, and the interference the other way around is even more critical, being able to completely offset the independent-NA-forced effect, because EA can substantively obstruct NA’s effect on the tropospheric wave pattern over the Eurasia–Pacific region. The much stronger (weaker) interference of EA (NA) is associated with its stronger (weaker) downstream weakening effect on the zonal flow that impinges on NA (EA). The mutual interference always tends to further destruct the upward wave fluxes over the eastern North Pacific and enhance the downward wave fluxes over North America. The overall changes in upward wave fluxes, as well as that in the Rossby stationary wavenumber responsible for the stratospheric changes, are related to changes in the zonal-mean flow pattern. The joint effects of EA and NA, rather than being a linear superimposition of their independent effects, are largely dominated by the effects of EA.

Full access
Yueyue Yu, Rongcai Ren, and Ming Cai

Abstract

This study investigates the dynamical linkage between the meridional mass circulation and cold air outbreaks using the ERA-Interim data covering the period 1979–2011. It is found that the onset date of continental-scale cold air outbreaks coincides well with the peak time of stronger meridional mass circulation events, when the net mass transport across 60°N in the warm or cold air branch exceeds ~88 × 109 kg s−1. During weaker mass circulation events when the net mass transport across 60°N is below ~71.6 × 109 kg s−1, most areas of the midlatitudes are generally in mild conditions except the northern part of western Europe. Composite patterns of circulation anomalies during stronger mass circulation events greatly resemble that of the winter mean, with the two main routes of anomalous cold air outbreaks being along the climatological routes of polar cold air: namely, via East Asia and North America. The Siberian high shifts westward during stronger mass circulation events, opening up a third route of cold air outbreaks through eastern Europe, where lies the poleward warm air route in the winter-mean condition. The strengthening of the Icelandic low and Azores high during stronger mass circulation events acts to close off the climatological-mean cold air route via western Europe; this is responsible for the comparatively normal temperature there. The composite pattern for weaker mass circulation events is generally reversed, where the weakening of the Icelandic low and Azores high, corresponding to the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), leads to the reopening and strengthening of the equatorward cold air route through western Europe, which is responsible for the cold anomalies there.

Full access
Bo Pang, Riyu Lu, and Rongcai Ren

Abstract

Cold surges occur frequently over the South China Sea (SCS) in winter, and most of them last only a few days. However, some cold surge events can persist longer, for instance, more than 5 days. This study focuses on these long-lived cold surge events and investigates the associated extratropical circulation anomalies. The results indicate that long-lived cold surges, characterized as strong northerlies over the SCS, can be triggered by a successive high anomaly center over East Asia. Accompanying this is an anomalously extensive and quasi-stationary anticyclone over Siberia in the midtroposphere, hinting at a more frequent occurrence of Siberian blocking. Further analyses reveal that the blocking frequency is indeed significantly high over 90°–150°E from day −4 to day +2 relative to the onset of long-lived cold surge events. Furthermore, there exist significant correlations between the leading occurrence of Siberian blocking and the sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over East Asia, which are directly related to long-lived cold surges. The intensification of the high SLP anomaly over East Asia is found to mainly result from cold advection induced by the anomalous northerly winds along the southeastern edge of the Siberian blocking.

Restricted access
Jian Rao, Chaim I. Garfinkel, and Rongcai Ren

Abstract

Using the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble (MME) historical experiments, the modulation of the stratospheric El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection by the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is investigated in this study. El Niño (La Niña) significantly impacts the extratropical stratosphere mainly during the positive (negative) PDO in the MME. Although the composite tropical ENSO SST intensities are similar during the positive and negative PDO in models, the Pacific–North American (PNA) responses are only significant when the PDO and ENSO are in phase. The local SST anomalies in the North Pacific can constructively (destructively) interfere with the tropical ENSO forcing to influence the extratropical eddy height anomalies when the PDO and ENSO are in (out of) phase. The difference between the positive and negative PDO in El Niño or La Niña winters filters out the tropical SST forcing, permitting the deduction of the extratropical SST contribution to the atmospheric response. The composite shows that the cold (warm) SST anomalies in the central North Pacific associated with the positive (negative) PDO have a similar impact to that of the warm (cold) SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific, exhibiting a positive (negative) PNA-like response, enhancing (weakening) the upward propagation of waves over the western coast of North America. The composite difference between the positive and negative PDO in El Niño or La Niña winters, as well as in eastern Pacific ENSO or central Pacific ENSO winters, presents a highly consistent atmospheric response pattern, which may imply a linear interference of the PDO’s impact with ENSO’s.

Full access
Dehai Luo, Linhao Zhong, Rongcai Ren, and Chunzai Wang

Abstract

In this part, the spatial evolution of an initial dipole anomaly in a prescribed jet is at first investigated by numerically solving linear and nonlinear models without forcing in order to examine how the spatial pattern of a dipole anomaly depends on the meridional distribution of a specified jet. It is shown that in a linear experiment an initial symmetric dipole anomaly in the meridional direction can evolve into a northeast–southwest (NE–SW) or northwest–southeast (NW–SE) tilted dipole structure if the core of this jet is in higher latitudes (the north) or in lower latitudes (the south). This is in agreement with the result predicted by the linear Rossby wave theory in slowly varying media. The conclusion also holds for the nonlinear and unforced experiment.

North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) events are then reproduced in a fully nonlinear barotropic model with a wavemaker that mimics the Atlantic storm-track eddy activity. In the absence of topography the spatial tilting of the eddy-driven NAO pattern is found to be independent of the NAO phase. The eddy-driven NAO pattern for the positive (negative) phase can exhibit a NE–SW (NW–SE) tilting only when the core of a prescribed jet prior to the NAO is confined in the higher latitude (lower latitude) region. However, in the presence of the wavenumber-2 topography (two oceans and continents) in the Northern Hemisphere the spatial tilting of the eddy-driven NAO dipole anomaly can be dependent on the NAO phase. Even when the specified basic flow prior to the NAO is uniform, the eddy-driven positive (negative) NAO phase dipole anomaly can also show a NE–SW (NW–SE) tilting because the northward (southward) shift of the excited westerly jet can occur in the presence of topography. In addition, it is found that when the wavemaker is closer to the position of the initial NAO, the eddy-driven positive (negative) NAO phase pattern can display a whole eastward shift and a more distinct NE–SW (NW–SE) tilting. This thus explains why the first empirical orthogonal function of the NAO pattern observed during 1998–2007 exhibits a more pronounced NE–SW tilting than during 1978–97. It appears that the latitudinal shift of the jet, the large-scale topography, and the zonal position of the Atlantic storm-track eddy activity are three important factors for controlling the spatial tilting and zonal shift of eddy-driven NAO dipole anomalies.

Full access
Dehai Luo, Zhihui Zhu, Rongcai Ren, Linhao Zhong, and Chunzai Wang

Abstract

This paper presents a possible dynamical explanation for why the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern exhibits an eastward shift from the period 1958–77 (P1) to the period 1978–97 (P2) or 1998–2007 (P3). First, the empirical orthogonal function analysis of winter mean geopotential heights during P1, P2, and P3 reveals that the NAO dipole anomaly exhibits a northwest–southeast (NW–SE) tilting during P1 but a northeast–southwest (NE–SW) tilting during P2 and P3. The NAO pattern, especially its northern center, undergoes a more pronounced eastward shift from P1 to P2. The composite calculation of NAO events during P1 and P2 also indicates that the negative (positive) NAO phase dipole anomaly can indeed exhibit such a NW–SE (NE–SW) tilting. Second, a linear Rossby wave formula derived in a slowly varying basic flow with a meridional shear is used to qualitatively show that the zonal phase speed of the NAO dipole anomaly is larger (smaller) in higher latitudes and smaller (larger) in lower latitudes during the life cycle of the positive (negative) NAO phases because the core of the Atlantic jet is shifted to the north (south). Such a phase speed distribution tends to cause the different movement speeds of the NAO dipole anomaly at different latitudes, thus resulting in the different spatial tilting of the NAO dipole anomaly depending on the phase of the NAO. The zonal displacement of the northern center of the NAO pattern appears to be more pronounced because the change of the mean flow between two phases of the NAO is more distinct in higher latitudes than in lower latitudes.

In addition, a weakly nonlinear analytical solution, based on the assumption of the scale separation between the NAO anomaly and transient synoptic-scale waves, is used to demonstrate that an eastward shift of the Atlantic storm-track eddy activity that is associated with the eastward extension of the Atlantic jet stream is a possible cause of the whole eastward shift of the center of action of the NAO pattern during P2/P3.

Full access
Ge Song, Bohua Huang, Rongcai Ren, and Zeng-Zhen Hu

Abstract

In this paper, the interannual variability of upper-ocean temperature in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) and its basin-wide connections are investigated using 58-year (1958-2015) comprehensive monthly mean ocean reanalysis data. Three leading modes of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis dominate the variability of upper-ocean temperature in the equatorial IO in a wide range of timescales. A coherent interannual band within the first two EOF modes identifies an oscillation between the zonally tilting thermocline across the equatorial IO in its peak phases and basin-wide displacement of the equatorial thermocline in its transitional phases. Consistent with the recharge oscillation paradigm, this oscillation is inherent of the equatorial IO with a quasi-periodicity around 15 months, in which the wind-induced off-equatorial Rossby waves near 5°S-10°S provide the phase-transition mechanism. This intrinsic IO oscillation provides the biennial component in the observed IOD variations. The third leading mode shows a nonlinear long-term trend of the upper-ocean temperature, including the near-surface warming along the equatorial Indian Ocean, accompanied by cooling trend in the lower thermocline originating further south. Such vertical contrary trends may lead to an enhanced stratification in the equatorial IO.

Restricted access
Yueyue Yu, Ming Cai, Chunhua Shi, and Rongcai Ren

Abstract

It is well established that sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events tend to be accompanied by continental-scale, surface cold-air outbreaks (CAOs) in midlatitudes in boreal winter. However, SSW events occur at most one to two times per winter, whereas CAOs occur three to seven times over each of the North American and Eurasian continents. Using the ERA-Interim dataset for 37 winters (November–March) from 1979 to 2016, we reveal that SSW events correspond to a large-amplitude or long-lasting subset of pulse-like, anomalously strong, stratospheric mass circulation events. The anomalously strong, stratospheric mass circulation events (referred to as PULSE events) occur more than nine times in an average winter. The “displacement” versus “split” types of SSWs tend to correspond to the “wavenumber 1” versus “wavenumber 2” types of PULSEs, though the relationship between split-type SSWs and wavenumber-2-type PULSEs is weaker. Like SSW events, PULSEs also have a close relationship with CAOs. The robust relationship with CAOs still holds for the PULSE events not accompanied by SSW events. Using PULSE events, we determine that more than 70% of CAOs in the 37 winters occur in the week before and after a PULSE event, with a false alarm rate of CAO occurrence of about 25.7%. SSW events, however, are associated with only about 5.7% of CAOs, with a false alarm rate of 21.7%. Therefore, the linkage between individual continental-scale CAOs and PULSE events represents a more generalized relationship between the stratospheric circulation anomalies and surface weather. PULSE signals should also be considered as a potentially useful stratospheric indicator of the occurrence of individual CAO events.

Full access