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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

In-cloud collections of snow and ice pellets in summer cumulus clouds have been made on Project White-top. These collections provided an opportunity for measuring the bulk densities of 129 snow pellets and ice pellets. Results show that their densities ranged from about 0.87 gm per cc to 0.91 gm per cc.

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Roscoe R. Braham, Jr.

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Schaefer's 1946 cloud seeding experiment initiated a quest for weather modification techniques. Progress has been slow; but there are several reasons for believing that useful precipitation augmentation may be possible.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

In situ snow particle size spectra measured by Particle Measuring Systems probes near the downwind shore of Lake Michigan during lake-effect snow storms are presented and discussed. Ice water contents ranged from 0.002 to 0.264 g m−3. Concentrations of sizes larger than 1 mm were generally exponentially distributed; however, concentrations of smaller particles usually were greater than suggested by the exponential fitted to concentrations of sizes larger than 1 mm. Exponential distribution parameters (N 0 and λ) are consistent with previously reported values. There is evidence of particle aggregation at −25°C.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

An AN/TPS-10 radar, located at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, University of Arizona, has been used to make extensive measurements of radar returns from cumulus clouds in the vicinity of Tucson. Data from ten days in the summer of 1955 have been analyzed with a view toward establishing the level of first formation of precipitation, day-to-day variation, average dimensions of first echo, average duration, and fraction reaching ground. Strong day-to-day variations and mountain effects are revealed. Although echoes form much more frequently over mountains than over nearby valleys, these echoes individually are less likely to produce rain at the ground.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

Recent observations indicate that ice pellets and snow pellets are present in most convective clouds in the Central United States by the time these clouds reach top temperatures of −10C. The attendant circumstances raise the question of whether the ice plays an active role in rain development in these clouds or whether its presence is purely incidental. The ice pellets are usually preceded by the development of liquid precipitation particles large enough to produce rain by coalescence with cloud droplets. The pellet concentrations are not related to ground-level ice nuclei concentrations. Apparently the pellets form as a result of freezing of the drops, contrary to most laboratory studies of droplet freezing. Observations can be brought into harmony by invoking the droplet splintering measurements of Mason and Maybank. The presence of numerous small ice particles in these clouds at temperatures warmer than −10C casts doubt upon the value of seeding with ice nuclei for rain inducement.

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Roscoe R. Braham Jr.

Abstract

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