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Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Shaoping Shang, Hao Dai, Jingyu Wu, Ke Liu, Rui Lin, Yan Wan, Hang Lin, Jinrui Chen, and Yan Li

Abstract

Two Ocean State Monitoring and Analyzing Radar (OSMAR071) (7.8 MHz) high-frequency (HF) radars and four moored ADCPs were operated concurrently in the southwestern Taiwan Strait during January–March 2013. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of surface currents were conducted between the HF radars and the ADCPs. Except for a location probably affected by shallow water and sand waves on the Taiwan Banks, the HF-radar-derived radial currents (radials) showed good agreement with the ADCP measured results (correlation coefficient: 0.89–0.98; rms difference: 0.07–0.13 m s−1). To provide further insight into the geophysical processes involved, the performance of the HF-radar-derived radials was further evaluated under different sea states (sea states: 2–6). It was found that both the data returns of the radar-derived radials and the differences between the radar-derived radials and the ADCP-derived radials varied with sea state. The HF radar performed best at sea state 4 in terms of data returns. The spatial coverage increased rapidly as the waves increased from sea state 2 to 4. However, it decreased slowly from sea state 4 to 6. Second, the radial differences were relatively high under lower sea states (2 and 3) at the location where the best agreement was obtained between the radar and ADCP radials, whereas the differences increased as the sea states increased at the other three locations. The differences between the radials measured by the HF radars and the ADCPs could be attributed to wave-induced Stokes drift and spatial sampling differences.

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Xue-Fa Wen, Xuhui Lee, Xiao-Min Sun, Jian-Lin Wang, Ya-Kun Tang, Sheng-Gong Li, and Gui-Rui Yu

Abstract

The δ 18O and δD of atmospheric water vapor are important tracers in hydrological and ecological studies. Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) provides an in situ technology for measuring δ 18O and δD in ambient conditions. An intercomparison experiment was carried out with four commercial IRIS analyzers to characterize their performance and transferability of calibration methods. Over a 15-day atmospheric measurement, during which the water vapor concentration ranged from 14 to 27 mol mol−1 and the isotopic ratios spanned about 90‰ and 13‰ for δD and δ 18O, respectively, these analyzers tracked the natural variability in ambient conditions very well and achieved an average difference between one another within 2‰ for δD and within 0.1‰ for δ 18O after calibration at appropriate frequencies. Two of the calibration methods (discrete liquid water injection and continuous dripping) agreed with each other within the tolerance thresholds of 2‰ for δD and 0.1‰ for δ 18O. The Rayleigh distillation technique appeared to be acceptable as a calibration standard for δD but not for δ 18O. The δD measurements were less prone to concentration dependence errors than the δ 18O measurements. The concentration dependence underscores the importance of using a calibration procedure at multiple mixing ratios to bracket the range of natural variability.

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