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S. FRITZ
and
S. D. SOULES

Abstract

Radiances emitted from the atmosphere near 669.3 cm−1 in the center of the 15-µm CO2 band were measured from the Nimbus 3 satellite. Changes in observed radiance correspond to weighted temperature changes of the upper 100 mb of air. The seasonal march of latitudinally averaged radiances is presented from 80°N to 80°S. The latitudinal and seasonal variations of radiance are removed from the data. The residuals emphasize the fact that winter polar stratospheric warmings are accompanied by stratospheric coolings in the Tropics and summer hemisphere. A warming of about 7°K near latitude 50° is accompanied by a cooling of about 1°K at the Equator. However, much larger warmings at latitudes near the poles do not produce correspondingly large coolings at the Equator.

The synoptic distributions of radiances on 2 days are discussed: (1) the day when the average latitudinal radiance was a minimum in polar latitudes and (2) the day when the polar warming reached its maximum. The wave number 1 pattern in middle and high latitudes of the Northern (winter) Hemisphere is evident. In the Southern (summer) Hemisphere, wave numbers 2 and 3 dominate. The large latitudinal difference of the radiances, on the day before the warming begins, reaches a value corresponding to about 15°K between 30° and 50°N at about 20°W longitude.

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S. Fritz
and
S. D. Soules

Abstract

The radiances in the CO2 band centered at 669.3 cm−1 (15 μ), measured by the satellite infrared spectrometer on Nimbus III, are examined. These radiances are a measure of a weighted mean temperature of approximately the upper 100 mb of the atmosphere. A new result shows that stratospheric warmings in the winter hemisphere are accompanied by simultaneous coolings in the stratosphere of the tropics and the summer hemisphere. These out-of-phase changes of stratospheric temperature may be explained by heat transfer changes caused by variations of the meridional circulation and large-scale eddies.

The out-of-phase relationship in stratospheric temperature is evident in the radiances when averaged around latitude circles, although the changes observed on certain dates do not occur at all longitudes. The isotherms in the stratosphere tend to be more nearly circumpolar on a day with minimum radiance. On a day when the warming reached its maximum, the higher radiances occur only in one part of the latitude zone. Widespread cooling in the tropics takes place while the warming progresses in the winter hemisphere, and eventually it occurs at all longitudes in a broad latitudinal zone in the tropics and the summer hemisphere.

The atmosphere seems to act like a standing wave in which the amplitude of the temperature changes are larger in the middle and high latitudes of the winter hemisphere than in the tropics and summer hemisphere. The nodal point moved somewhat with the season, between about 25–45S, during the Southern Hemisphere winter.

Radiance data also show the seasonal trend of stratospheric temperature from 8ON to 80S. The expected seasonal variation is found in middle and high latitudes; however, the winter radiances at 80S are not as cold in relation to the winter radiances at 8ON as might be expected from climatological temperatures up to 30 mb.

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D. T. HILLEARY
,
E. L. HEACOCK
,
W. A. MORGAN
,
R. H. MOORE
,
E. C. MANGOLD
, and
S. D. SOULES

Abstract

Three spectrometers and associated experiments are described. The work reviewed comprises the early experimental phases of a program to develop a satellite infrared spectrometer capable of making radiometric measurements in the 15-micron carbon dioxide band needed for deduction of atmospheric temperature profiles. Initially, a simplified, breadboard spectrometer with four spectral channels was used to determine the temperature profile of the lower atmosphere from the ground. Next, a commercial spectrophotometer was modified and another determination of the atmospheric temperature profile was made using more spectral intervals. Instrument specifications for a balloon flight model spectrometer were derived from these experiments. Following the model*s fabrication, testing, and calibration, two high-altitude balloon flights were conducted to demonstrate that the atmospheric temperature profile could be ascertained from above the atmosphere.

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