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JAY S. WINSTON and ARTHUR F. KRUEGER

Abstract

A large-scale cycle of available potential energy in the Northern Hemisphere over a period of about two weeks during late December 1958 and early January 1950 has been investigated in some detail. During this cycle the zonal available potential energy first built up strongly to a maximum, and then when it began to decline, increases in eddy available and eddy kinetic energy took place. These changes in the energy parameters were well related to variations in the poleward heat transport, large values of which signify substantial conversions from zonal to eddy available potential energy, and to variations in the conversion between potential and kinetic energy. Furthermore some estimates of the generation of available potential energy show good consistency with the available potential energy variations. Examination of this cycle of available potential energy on a regional basis indicates that it was almost completely dominated by developments over North America and vicinity. The synoptic events associated with this energy cycle are also illustrated.

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Arthur F. Krueger and Jay S. Winston

Abstract

The contrasting circulation and cloudiness over the tropics during two extremes of the zonally oriented Walker circulation are described. During February 1971 the trade winds over the Pacific Ocean were very strong with fast upper tropospheric westerlies superimposed. This was associated with well-developed, high-level oceanic troughs over the east central Pacific both north and south of the equator. Tropical convection was largely confined to the three tropical continental areas, while the ITCZ over the Pacific was very weak.

During February 1969 the Walker circulation was considerably weaker. Tropical convection was more extensive over the central and eastern Pacific. The high-level mid-oceanic troughs were also weaker and even replaced by weak anticyclonic flow over the convective regions. Associated with this the sub-tropical jet stream was very much stronger over the eastern Pacific, North America and the Atlantic, but weaker near Japan.

It is suggested that dynamic instability in the westerlies of the subtropical jet stream plays an important role in regulating the intensity of the tropical circulation.

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ARTHUR F. KRUEGER, JAY S. WINSTON, and DONALD A. HAINES

Abstract

Computations of atmospheric energy and several of its transformation terms from data extending back to October 1958 have been carried out using the National Meteorological Center's ADP analyses. From these calculations the annual variation of the atmosphere's energy cycle has been estimated. In addition, some yearly differences for the colder half of the year are described.

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L. F. Hubert, A. F. Krueger, and J. S. Winston

Abstract

No abstract available.

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Qiang Fu, M. C. Cribb, H. W. Barker, S. K. Krueger, and A. Grossman

Abstract

A 3D broadband solar radiative transfer scheme is formulated by integrating a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm with the Fu–Liou radiation model. It is applied to fields of tropical mesoscale convective clouds and subtropical marine boundary layer clouds that were generated by a 2D cloud-resolving model. The effects of cloud geometry on the radiative energy budget are examined by comparing the full-resolution Monte Carlo results with those from the independent column approximation (ICA) that applies the plane-parallel radiation model to each column.

For the tropical convective cloud system, it is found that cloud geometry effects always enhance atmospheric solar absorption regardless of solar zenith angle. In a large horizontal domain (512 km), differences in domain-averaged atmospheric absorption between the Monte Carlo and the ICA are less than 4 W m−2 in the daytime. However, for a smaller domain (e.g., 75 km) containing a cluster of deep convective towers, domain-averaged absorption can be enhanced by more than 20 W m−2. For a subtropical marine boundary layer cloud system during the stratus-to-cumulus transition, calculations show that the ICA works very well for domain-averaged fluxes of the stratocumulus cloud fields even for a very small domain (4.8 km). For the trade cumulus cloud field, the effects of cloud sides and horizontal transport of photons become more significant. Calculations have also been made for both cloud systems including black carbon aerosol and a water vapor continuum. It is found that cloud geometry produces no discernible effects on the absorption enhancement due to the black carbon aerosol and water vapor continuum.

The current study indicates that the atmospheric absorption enhancement due to cloud-related 3D photon transport is small. This enhancement could not explain the excess absorption suggested by recent studies.

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Steven K. Krueger, Qiang Fu, K. N. Liou, and Hung-Neng S. Chin

Abstract

It is important to properly simulate the extent and ice water content of tropical anvil clouds in numerical models that explicitly include cloud formation because of the significant effects that these clouds have on the radiation budget. For this reason, a commonly used bulk ice-phase microphysics parameterization was modified to more realistically simulate some of the microphysical processes that occur in tropical anvil clouds. Cloud ice growth by the Bergeron process and the associated formation of snow were revised. The characteristics of graupel were also modified in accord with a previous study. Numerical simulations of a tropical squall line demonstrate that the amount of cloud ice and the extent of anvil clouds are increased to more realistic values by the first two changes.

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P. Bechtold, S. K. Krueger, W. S. Lewellen, E. van Meijgaard, C.-H. Moeng, D. A. Randall, A. van Ulden, and S. Wang

Several one-dimensional (ID) cloud/turbulence ensemble modeling results of an idealized nighttime marine stratocumulus case are compared to large eddy simulation (LES). This type of model intercomparison was one of the objects of the first Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Study boundary layer modeling workshop held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research on 16–18 August 1994.

Presented are results obtained with different 1D models, ranging from bulk models (including only one or two vertical layers) to various types (first order to third order) of multilayer turbulence closure models. The ID results fall within the scatter of the LES results. It is shown that ID models can reasonably represent the main features (cloud water content, cloud fraction, and some turbulence statistics) of a well-mixed stratocumulus-topped boundary layer.

Also addressed is the question of what model complexity is necessary and can be afforded for a reasonable representation of stratocumulus clouds in mesoscale or global-scale operational models. Bulk models seem to be more appropriate for climate studies, whereas a multilayer turbulence scheme is best suited in mesoscale models having at least 100- to 200-m vertical resolution inside the boundary layer.

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Kun-Il Jang, X. Zou, M. S. F. V. De Pondeca, M. Shapiro, C. Davis, and A. Krueger

Abstract

In this study, a methodology is proposed for incorporating total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) into the initial conditions of a mesoscale prediction model. Based on the strong correlation between vertical mean potential vorticity (MPV) and TOMS ozone (O3) that was found in middle latitudes at both 30- and 90-km resolutions, using either analyses or 24-h model forecasts, a statistical correlation model between O3 and MPV is employed for assimilating TOMS ozone in a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) procedure. A linear relationship between O3 and MPV is first assumed: O3 = α(MPV) + β. The constants α and β are then found by a regression method. The proposed approach of using this simple linear regression model for ozone assimilation is applied to the prediction of the 24–25 January 2000 East Coast winter storm. Three 4DVAR experiments are carried out assimilating TOMS ozone, radiosonde, or both types of observations. It is found that adjustments in model initial conditions assimilating only TOMS ozone data are confined to the upper levels and produce almost no impact on the prediction of the storm development. However, when TOMS ozone data are used together with radiosonde observations, a more rapid deepening of sea level pressure of the simulated storm is observed than with only radiosonde observations. The predicted track of the winter storm is also altered, moving closer to the coast. Using NCEP multisensor hourly rainfall data as verification, the 36-h forecasts with both TOMS ozone and radiosonde observations outperform the radiosonde-only experiments. These results indicate that TOMS ozone data contain valuable meteorological information, which can be used to improve cyclone prediction.

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B. H. Kahn, J. Teixeira, E. J. Fetzer, A. Gettelman, S. M. Hristova-Veleva, X. Huang, A. K. Kochanski, M. Köhler, S. K. Krueger, R. Wood, and M. Zhao

Abstract

Observations of the scale dependence of height-resolved temperature T and water vapor q variability are valuable for improved subgrid-scale climate model parameterizations and model evaluation. Variance spectral benchmarks for T and q obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are compared to those generated by state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction “analyses” and “free-running” climate model simulations with spatial resolution comparable to AIRS. The T and q spectra from both types of models are generally too steep, with small-scale variance up to several factors smaller than AIRS. However, the two model analyses more closely resemble AIRS than the two free-running model simulations. Scaling exponents obtained for AIRS column water vapor (CWV) and height-resolved layers of q are also compared to the superparameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), highlighting large differences in the magnitude of CWV variance and the relative flatness of height-resolved q scaling in SP-CAM. Height-resolved q spectra obtained from aircraft observations during the Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) demonstrate changes in scaling exponents that depend on the observations’ proximity to the base of the subsidence inversion with scale breaks that occur at approximately the dominant cloud scale (~10–30 km). This suggests that finer spatial resolution requirements must be considered for future satellite observations of T and q than those currently planned for infrared and microwave satellite sounders.

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C.-H. Moeng, W. R. Cotton, C. Bretherton, A. Chlond, M. Khairoutdinov, S. Krueger, W. S. Lewellen, M. K. MacVean, J. R. M. Pasquier, H. A. Rand, A. P. Siebesma, B. Stevens, and R. I. Sykes

This paper reports an intercomparison study of a stratocumulus-topped planetary boundary layer (PBL) generated from ten 3D large eddy simulation (LES) codes and four 2D cloud-resolving models (CRMs). These models vary in the numerics, the parameterizations of the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and condensation processes, and the calculation of longwave radiative cooling. Cloud-top radiative cooling is often the major source of buoyant production of turbulent kinetic energy in the stratocumulus-topped PBL. An idealized nocturnal stratocumulus case was selected for this study. It featured a statistically horizontally homogeneous and nearly solid cloud deck with no drizzle, no solar radiation, little wind shear, and little surface heating.

Results of the two-hour simulations showed that the overall cloud structure, including cloud-top height, cloud fraction, and the vertical distributions of many turbulence statistics, compared well among all LESs despite the code variations. However, the entrainment rate was found to differ significantly among the simulations. Among the model uncertainties due to numerics, SGS turbulence, SGS condensation, and radiation, none could be identified to explain such differences. Therefore, a follow-up study will focus on simulating the entrainment process. The liquid water mixing ratio profiles also varied significantly among the simulations; these profiles are sensitive to the algorithm used for computing the saturation mixing ratio.

Despite the obvious differences in eddy structure in two- and three-dimensional simulations, the cloud structure predicted by the 2D CRMs was similar to that obtained by the 3D LESs, even though the momentum fluxes, the vertical and horizontal velocity variances, and the turbulence kinetic energy profiles predicted by the 2D CRMs all differ significantly from those of the LESs.

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