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Paula Camus
,
Antonio S. Cofiño
,
Fernando J. Mendez
, and
Raul Medina

Abstract

The visual description of wave climate is usually limited to two-dimensional conditional histograms. In this work, self-organizing maps (SOMs), because of their visualization properties, are used to characterize multivariate wave climate. The SOMs are applied to time series of sea-state parameters at a particular location provided by ocean reanalysis databases. Trivariate (significant wave height, mean period, and mean direction), pentavariate (the previous wave parameters and wind velocity and direction), and hexavariate (three wave parameters of the sea and swell components; or the wave, wind, and storm surge) classifications are explored. This clustering technique is also applied to wave and wind data at several locations to analyze their spatial relationship. Several processes are established in order to improve the results, the most relevant being a preselection of data by means a maximum dissimilarity algorithm (MDA). Results show that the SOM identifies the relevant multivariate sea-state types at a particular location spanning the historical variability, and provides an outstanding analysis of the dependency between the different parameters by visual inspection. In the case of wave climate characterizations for several locations the SOM is able to extract the qualitative spatial sea-state patterns, allowing the analysis of the spatial variability and the relationship between different locations. Moreover, the distribution of sea states over the reanalysis period defines a probability density function on the lattice, providing a visual interpretation of the seasonality and interannuality of the multivariate wave climate.

Full access
R. A. Houze Jr.
,
K. L. Rasmussen
,
S. Medina
,
S. R. Brodzik
, and
U. Romatschke

Abstract

No abstract available.

Full access
Matthew R. Kumjian
,
Rachel Gutierrez
,
Joshua S. Soderholm
,
Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Paula Maldonado
,
Lorena Medina Luna
,
James Marquis
,
Kevin A. Bowley
,
Milagros Alvarez Imaz
, and
Paola Salio

Abstract

On 8 February 2018, a supercell storm produced gargantuan (>15 cm or >6 in. in maximum dimension) hail as it moved over the heavily populated city of Villa Carlos Paz in Córdoba Province, Argentina. Observations of gargantuan hail are quite rare, but the large population density here yielded numerous witnesses and social media pictures and videos from this event that document multiple large hailstones. The storm was also sampled by the newly installed operational polarimetric C-band radar in Córdoba. During the RELAMPAGO campaign, the authors interviewed local residents about their accounts of the storm and uncovered additional social media video and photographs revealing extremely large hail at multiple locations in town. This article documents the case, including the meteorological conditions supporting the storm (with the aid of a high-resolution WRF simulation), the storm’s observed radar signatures, and three noteworthy hailstones observed by residents. These hailstones include a freezer-preserved 4.48-in. (11.38 cm) maximum dimension stone that was scanned with a 3D infrared laser scanner, a 7.1-in. (18 cm) maximum dimension stone, and a hailstone photogrammetrically estimated to be between 7.4 and 9.3 in. (18.8–23.7 cm) in maximum dimension, which is close to or exceeds the world record for maximum dimension. Such a well-observed case is an important step forward in understanding environments and storms that produce gargantuan hail, and ultimately how to anticipate and detect such extreme events.

Free access
Matthew R. Kumjian
,
Rachel Gutierrez
,
Joshua S. Soderholm
,
Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Paula Maldonado
,
Lorena Medina Luna
,
James Marquis
,
Kevin A. Bowley
,
Milagros Alvarez Imaz
, and
Paola Salio
Full access
Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Paola V. Salio
,
Eldo Ávila
,
Phillip Bitzer
,
Lawrence Carey
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
Wiebke Deierling
,
Francina Dominguez
,
Maria Eugenia Dillon
,
C. Marcelo Garcia
,
David Gochis
,
Steven Goodman
,
Deanna A. Hence
,
Karen A. Kosiba
,
Matthew R. Kumjian
,
Timothy Lang
,
Lorena Medina Luna
,
James Marquis
,
Robert Marshall
,
Lynn A. McMurdie
,
Ernani de Lima Nascimento
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen
,
Rita Roberts
,
Angela K. Rowe
,
Juan José Ruiz
,
Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas
,
A. Celeste Saulo
,
Russ S. Schumacher
,
Yanina Garcia Skabar
,
Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado
,
Robert J. Trapp
,
Adam C. Varble
,
James Wilson
,
Joshua Wurman
,
Edward J. Zipser
,
Ivan Arias
,
Hernán Bechis
, and
Maxwell A. Grover

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the experimental design, execution, education and public outreach, data collection, and initial scientific results from the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign. RELAMPAGO was a major field campaign conducted in the Córdoba and Mendoza provinces in Argentina and western Rio Grande do Sul State in Brazil in 2018–19 that involved more than 200 scientists and students from the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. This campaign was motivated by the physical processes and societal impacts of deep convection that frequently initiates in this region, often along the complex terrain of the Sierras de Córdoba and Andes, and often grows rapidly upscale into dangerous storms that impact society. Observed storms during the experiment produced copious hail, intense flash flooding, extreme lightning flash rates, and other unusual lightning phenomena, but few tornadoes. The five distinct scientific foci of RELAMPAGO—convection initiation, severe weather, upscale growth, hydrometeorology, and lightning and electrification—are described, as are the deployment strategies to observe physical processes relevant to these foci. The campaign’s international cooperation, forecasting efforts, and mission planning strategies enabled a successful data collection effort. In addition, the legacy of RELAMPAGO in South America, including extensive multinational education, public outreach, and social media data gathering associated with the campaign, is summarized.

Full access
Javier Diez-Sierra
,
Maialen Iturbide
,
José M. Gutiérrez
,
Jesús Fernández
,
Josipa Milovac
,
Antonio S. Cofiño
,
Ezequiel Cimadevilla
,
Grigory Nikulin
,
Guillaume Levavasseur
,
Erik Kjellström
,
Katharina Bülow
,
András Horányi
,
Anca Brookshaw
,
Markel García-Díez
,
Antonio Pérez
,
Jorge Baño-Medina
,
Bodo Ahrens
,
Antoinette Alias
,
Moetasim Ashfaq
,
Melissa Bukovsky
,
Erasmo Buonomo
,
Steven Caluwaerts
,
Sin Chan Chou
,
Ole B. Christensen
,
James M. Ciarlò
,
Erika Coppola
,
Lola Corre
,
Marie-Estelle Demory
,
Vladimir Djurdjevic
,
Jason P. Evans
,
Rowan Fealy
,
Hendrik Feldmann
,
Daniela Jacob
,
Sanjay Jayanarayanan
,
Jack Katzfey
,
Klaus Keuler
,
Christoph Kittel
,
Mehmet Levent Kurnaz
,
René Laprise
,
Piero Lionello
,
Seth McGinnis
,
Paola Mercogliano
,
Pierre Nabat
,
Barış Önol
,
Tugba Ozturk
,
Hans-Jürgen Panitz
,
Dominique Paquin
,
Ildikó Pieczka
,
Francesca Raffaele
,
Armelle Reca Remedio
,
John Scinocca
,
Florence Sevault
,
Samuel Somot
,
Christian Steger
,
Fredolin Tangang
,
Claas Teichmann
,
Piet Termonia
,
Marcus Thatcher
,
Csaba Torma
,
Erik van Meijgaard
,
Robert Vautard
,
Kirsten Warrach-Sagi
,
Katja Winger
, and
George Zittis

Abstract

The collaboration between the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) provides open access to an unprecedented ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) simulations, across the 14 CORDEX continental-scale domains, with global coverage. These simulations have been used as a new line of evidence to assess regional climate projections in the latest contribution of the Working Group I (WGI) to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), particularly in the regional chapters and the Atlas. Here, we present the work done in the framework of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) to ­assemble a consistent worldwide CORDEX grand ensemble, aligned with the deadlines and ­activities of IPCC AR6. This work addressed the uneven and heterogeneous availability of CORDEX ESGF data by supporting publication in CORDEX domains with few archived simulations and performing quality control. It also addressed the lack of comprehensive documentation by compiling information from all contributing regional models, allowing for an informed use of data. In addition to presenting the worldwide CORDEX dataset, we assess here its consistency for precipitation and temperature by comparing climate change signals in regions with overlapping CORDEX domains, obtaining overall coincident regional climate change signals. The C3S CORDEX dataset has been used for the assessment of regional climate change in the IPCC AR6 (and for the interactive Atlas) and is available through the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS).

Open access