Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: S. Sokolovskiy x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
S. Sokolovskiy, Y-H. Kuo, and W. Wang

Abstract

In this study a nonlocal, linear observation operator for assimilating radio occultation data is evaluated. The operator consists of modeling the excess phase, that is, integrating the refractivity along straight lines tangent to rays, below a certain height. The corresponding observable is the excess phase integrated through the Abel-retrieved refractivity, along the same lines, below the same height. The operator allows very simple implementation (computationally efficient) while accurately accounting for the horizontal refractivity gradients. This is due to significant cancellation of the linearization and discretization errors when modeling the observable. Evaluation of the operator with Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) radio occultation data and grid refractivity fields from high-resolution regional analysis over the continental United States showed reduction of the observation error in the troposphere (below 7 km) 1.5–2 times, compared to the error of local refractivity. The operator is useful for the assimilation of radio occultation data by high-resolution weather models in the troposphere.

Full access
S. Sokolovskiy, W. Schreiner, C. Rocken, and D. Hunt

Abstract

GPS radio occultation remote sensing of the neutral atmosphere requires ionospheric correction of L1 and L2 signals. The ionosphere-corrected variables derived from radio occultation signals—such as the phase, Doppler, and bending angle—are affected by small-scale ionospheric effects that are not completely eliminated by the ionospheric correction. They are also affected by noise from mainly the L2 signal. This paper introduces a simple method for optimal filtering of the L4 = L1 − L2 signal used to correct the L1 signal, which minimizes the combined effects of both the small-scale ionospheric residual effects and L2 noise on the ionosphere-corrected variables. Statistical comparisons to high-resolution numerical weather models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) validate that this increases the accuracy of radio occultation inversions in the stratosphere.

Full access
Zhen Zeng, Sergey Sokolovskiy, William S. Schreiner, and Doug Hunt

Abstract

Global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) is capable of retrieving vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters with high resolution (<100 m), which can be achieved in spherically symmetric atmosphere. Horizontal inhomogeneity of real atmosphere results in representativeness errors of retrieved profiles. In most cases these errors increase with a decrease of vertical scales of atmospheric structures and may not allow one to fully utilize the physical resolution of RO. Also, GPS RO–retrieved profiles are affected by observational noise of different types, which, in turn, affect the representation of small-scale atmospheric structures. This study investigates the effective resolution and optimal smoothing of GPS RO–retrieved temperature profiles using high-pass filtering and cross correlation with collocated high-resolution radiosondes. The effective resolution is a trade-off between representation of real atmospheric structures and suppression of observational noise, which varies for different latitudes (15°S–75°N) and altitudes (10–27 km). Our results indicate that at low latitudes the effective vertical resolution is about 0.2 km near the tropical tropopause layer and about 0.5 km in the lower stratosphere. The best resolution of 0.1 km is at the cold-point tropical tropopause. The effective resolutions at the midlatitudes are slightly worse than at low latitudes, varying from ~0.2 to 0.6 km. At high latitudes, the effective resolutions change notably with altitude from ~0.2 km at 10–15 km to ~1.4 km at 22–27 km. Our results suggest that the atmospheric inhomogeneity plays an important role in the representation of the vertical atmospheric structures by RO measurements.

Full access
P. Guo, Y.-H. Kuo, S. V. Sokolovskiy, and D. H. Lenschow

Abstract

This study presents an algorithm for estimating atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) data. The algorithm is applied to the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) RO data and validated using high-resolution radiosonde data from the island of St. Helena (16.0°S, 5.7°W), tropical (30°S–30°N) radiosondes collocated with RO, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) high-resolution global analyses. Spatial and temporal variations of the ABL depth obtained from COSMIC RO data for a 1-yr period over tropical and subtropical oceans are analyzed. The results demonstrate the capability of RO data to resolve geographical and seasonal variations of ABL height. The spatial patterns of the variations are consistent with those derived from ECMWF global analysis. However, the ABL heights derived from ECMWF global analysis, on average, are negatively biased against those estimated from COSMIC GPS RO data. These results indicate that GPS RO data can provide useful information on ABL height, which is an important parameter for weather and climate studies.

Full access
Y.-H. Kuo, X. Zou, S. J. Chen, W. Huang, Y.-R. Guo, R. A. Anthes, M. Exner, D. Hunt, C. Rocken, and S. Sokolovskiy

A Global Positioning System Meteorology (GPS/MET) proof-of-concept experiment became a reality on 3 April 1995. A small satellite carrying a modified GPS receiver was launched into earth orbit to demonstrate the feasibility of active limb sounding of the earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere using the radio occultation method. On 22 October 1995, a GPS/MET occultation took place over northeastern China where a dense network of radiosonde observations was available within an hour of the occultation. The GPS/MET refractivity profile shows an inflection, and the corresponding temperature retrieval displays a sharp temperature inversion around 310 mb. Subjective analyses based on radiosonde observations indicate that the GPS/MET occultation went through a strong upper-level front. In this paper, the GPS/MET sounding is compared with nearby radiosonde observations to assess its accuracy and ability to resolve a strong mesoscale feature. The inflection in the refractivity profile and the sharp frontal inversion seen in the GPS/MET sounding were verified closely by a radiosonde located about 150 km to the east of the GPS/MET occultation site. A similar frontal structure was also found in other nearby radiosonde observations. These results showed that high-quality GPS/MET radio occultation data can be obtained even when the occultation goes through a sharp temperature gradient associated with an upper-level front.

Full access
R. Ware, M. Exner, D. Feng, M. Gorbunov, K. Hardy, B. Herman, Y. Kuo, T. Meehan, W. Melbourne, C. Rocken, W. Schreiner, S. Sokolovskiy, F. Solheim, X. Zou, R. Anthes, S. Businger, and K. Trenberth

This paper provides an overview of the methodology of and describes preliminary results from an experiment called GPS/MET (Global Positioning System/Meteorology), in which temperature soundings are obtained from a low Earth-orbiting satellite using the radio occultation technique. Launched into a circular orbit of about 750-km altitude and 70° inclination on 3 April 1995, a small research satellite, MicroLab 1, carried a laptop-sized radio receiver. Each time this receiver rises and sets relative to the 24 operational GPS satellites, the GPS radio waves transect successive layers of the atmosphere and are bent (refracted) by the atmosphere before they reach the receiver, causing a delay in the dual-frequency carrier phase observations sensed by the receiver. During this occultation, GPS limb sounding measurements are obtained from which vertical profiles of atmospheric refractivity can be computed. The refractivity is a function of pressure, temperature, and water vapor and thus provides information on these variables that has the potential to be useful in weather prediction and weather and climate research.

Because of the dependence of refractivity on both temperature and water vapor, it is generally impossible to compute both variables from a refractivity sounding. However, if either temperature or water vapor is known from independent measurements or from model predictions, the other variable may be calculated. In portions of the atmosphere where moisture effects are negligible (typically above 5–7 km), temperature may be estimated directly from refractivity.

This paper compares a representative sample of 11 temperature profiles derived from GPS/MET soundings (assuming a dry atmosphere) with nearby radiosonde and high-resolution balloon soundings and the operational gridded analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly the National Meteorological Center). One GPS/MET profile was obtained at a location where a temperature profile from the Halogen Occultation Experiment was available for comparison. These comparisons show that accurate vertical temperature profiles may be obtained using the GPS limb sounding technique from approximately 40 km to about 5–7 km in altitude where moisture effects are negligible. Temperatures in this region usually agree within 2°C with the independent sources of data. The GPS/MET temperature profiles show vertical resolution of about 1 km and resolve the location and minimum temperature of the tropopause very well. Theoretical temperature accuracy is better than 0.5°C at the tropopause, degrading to about 1°C at 40-km altitude.

Above 40 km and below 5 km, these preliminary temperature retrievals show difficulties. In the upper atmosphere, the errors result from initial temperature and pressure assumptions in this region and initial ionospheric refraction assumptions. In the lower troposphere, the errors appear to be associated with multipath effects caused by large gradients in refractivity primarily due to water vapor distribution.

Full access
R. A Anthes, P. A Bernhardt, Y. Chen, L. Cucurull, K. F. Dymond, D. Ector, S. B. Healy, S.-P. Ho, D. C Hunt, Y.-H. Kuo, H. Liu, K. Manning, C. McCormick, T. K. Meehan, W J. Randel, C. Rocken, W S. Schreiner, S. V. Sokolovskiy, S. Syndergaard, D. C. Thompson, K. E. Trenberth, T.-K. Wee, N. L. Yen, and Z Zeng

The radio occultation (RO) technique, which makes use of radio signals transmitted by the global positioning system (GPS) satellites, has emerged as a powerful and relatively inexpensive approach for sounding the global atmosphere with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution in all weather and over both land and ocean. On 15 April 2006, the joint Taiwan-U.S. Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC)/Formosa Satellite Mission 3 (COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3, hereafter COSMIC) mission, a constellation of six microsatellites, was launched into a 512-km orbit. After launch the satellites were gradually deployed to their final orbits at 800 km, a process that took about 17 months. During the early weeks of the deployment, the satellites were spaced closely, offering a unique opportunity to verify the high precision of RO measurements. As of September 2007, COSMIC is providing about 2000 RO soundings per day to support the research and operational communities. COSMIC RO data are of better quality than those from the previous missions and penetrate much farther down into the troposphere; 70%–90% of the soundings reach to within 1 km of the surface on a global basis. The data are having a positive impact on operational global weather forecast models.

With the ability to penetrate deep into the lower troposphere using an advanced open-loop tracking technique, the COSMIC RO instruments can observe the structure of the tropical atmospheric boundary layer. The value of RO for climate monitoring and research is demonstrated by the precise and consistent observations between different instruments, platforms, and missions. COSMIC observations are capable of intercalibrating microwave measurements from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on different satellites. Finally, unique and useful observations of the ionosphere are being obtained using the RO receiver and two other instruments on the COSMIC satellites, the tiny ionosphere photometer (TIP) and the tri-band beacon.

Full access