Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: S. Zacharias x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
P. Racette, R. F. Adler, J. R. Wang, A. J. Gasiewski, D. M. Jakson, and D. S. Zacharias

Abstract

A six-channel airborne total-power Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was recently built to provide measurements of atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation. The instrument is a cross-track scanner that has a 3-dB beamwidth of 3.5° and an angular swath of 100°. It measures radiation at the frequencies of 89, 150, 183.3 ± 1, 183.3 ± 3, 183.3 ± 7, and 220 GHz. The inclusion of the 220-GHz receiver makes this instrument unique; no other instrument has made atmospheric radiation measurements using this combination of frequencies. The temperature sensitivities ΔT, based on the actual flight data with a 6.8-ms integration time, are found to be 0.44, 0.44, 1.31, 1.30. 1.02, and 1.07 K. The instrument has two external calibration loads maintained at the temperatures of 330 and 250 K (the ambient temperature at an aircraft altitude of 20 km). These calibration load temperatures are monitored precisely so that the radiometric measurements of the instrument could be made to better than 1 K of accuracy in the brightness temperature range of 240–300 K. Measurements made with a calibration target emmersed in liquid nitrogen indicate a measurement accuracy of 2–4 K for brightness temperatures below 100 K. The instrument has flown successfully aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ER-2 aircraft for more than 130 h. This paper is an overview of the system design, calibration, and measurement capabilities.

Full access
B. Wolf, C. Chwala, B. Fersch, J. Garvelmann, W. Junkermann, M. J. Zeeman, A. Angerer, B. Adler, C. Beck, C. Brosy, P. Brugger, S. Emeis, M. Dannenmann, F. De Roo, E. Diaz-Pines, E. Haas, M. Hagen, I. Hajnsek, J. Jacobeit, T. Jagdhuber, N. Kalthoff, R. Kiese, H. Kunstmann, O. Kosak, R. Krieg, C. Malchow, M. Mauder, R. Merz, C. Notarnicola, A. Philipp, W. Reif, S. Reineke, T. Rödiger, N. Ruehr, K. Schäfer, M. Schrön, A. Senatore, H. Shupe, I. Völksch, C. Wanninger, S. Zacharias, and H. P. Schmid

Abstract

ScaleX is a collaborative measurement campaign, collocated with a long-term environmental observatory of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) network in the mountainous terrain of the Bavarian Prealps, Germany. The aims of both TERENO and ScaleX include the measurement and modeling of land surface–atmosphere interactions of energy, water, and greenhouse gases. ScaleX is motivated by the recognition that long-term intensive observational research over years or decades must be based on well-proven, mostly automated measurement systems, concentrated in a small number of locations. In contrast, short-term intensive campaigns offer the opportunity to assess spatial distributions and gradients by concentrated instrument deployments, and by mobile sensors (ground and/or airborne) to obtain transects and three-dimensional patterns of atmospheric, surface, or soil variables and processes. Moreover, intensive campaigns are ideal proving grounds for innovative instruments, methods, and techniques to measure quantities that cannot (yet) be automated or deployed over long time periods. ScaleX is distinctive in its design, which combines the benefits of a long-term environmental-monitoring approach (TERENO) with the versatility and innovative power of a series of intensive campaigns, to bridge across a wide span of spatial and temporal scales. This contribution presents the concept and first data products of ScaleX-2015, which occurred in June–July 2015. The second installment of ScaleX took place in summer 2016 and periodic further ScaleX campaigns are planned throughout the lifetime of TERENO. This paper calls for collaboration in future ScaleX campaigns or to use our data in modelling studies. It is also an invitation to emulate the ScaleX concept at other long-term observatories.

Full access