Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: Samuel Haimov x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Samuel Haimov and Alfred Rodi
Full access
Samuel Haimov and Alfred Rodi

Abstract

Doppler velocity measurements from airborne meteorological Doppler radars require removal of the aircraft motion contribution in order to provide radial velocity of hydrometeor targets. This is a critical step for hydrometeor motion and wind retrievals. The aircraft motion contribution is defined as the scalar product between the radar antenna beam-pointing vector and the aircraft velocity vector at the antenna phase center. The accuracy in the removal of the aircraft velocity contribution is determined by the accuracy of the beam-pointing vector, the rigidity of the antenna mount, and the accuracy of the aircraft attitude and velocity measurements. In this paper an optimization technique is proposed to determine the antenna beam-pointing vector and to analyze its uncertainties using aircraft attitude and velocity data from a GPS-aided inertial measurement unit and radar observations of the earth surface. The technique is applied to Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) on the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft. The beam-pointing vectors of the two fixed downward-pointing WCR antennas are calibrated using data selected from several calibration flights. The maximum root-mean-square error in the calibrated beam-pointing angles is smaller than 0.03°, resulting in less than 0.1 m s−1 aircraft motion residual error in the Doppler velocities after removing the aircraft motion contribution. Some applicability and limitations to other airborne Doppler radars with fixed antennas are discussed.

Full access
Bart Geerts, Rick Damiani, and Samuel Haimov

Abstract

In the afternoon of 24 May 2002, a well-defined and frontogenetic cold front moved through the Texas panhandle. Detailed observations from a series of platforms were collected near the triple point between this cold front and a dryline boundary.

This paper primarily uses reflectivity and Doppler velocity data from an airborne 95-GHz radar, as well as flight-level thermodynamic data, to describe the vertical structure of the cold front as it intersected with the dryline. The prefrontal convective boundary layer was weakly capped, weakly sheared, and about 2.5 times deeper than the cold-frontal density current.

The radar data depict the cold front as a fine example of an atmospheric density current at unprecedented detail (∼40 m). The echo structure and dual-Doppler-inferred airflow in the vertical plane reveal typical features such as a nose, a head, a rear-inflow current, and a broad current of rising prefrontal air that feeds the accelerating front-to-rear current over the head. The 2D cross-frontal structure, including the frontal slope, is highly variable in time or alongfront distance. Along this slope horizontal vorticity, averaging ∼0.05 s−1, is generated baroclinically, and the associated strong cross-front shear triggers Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) billows at the density interface. Some KH billows occupy much of the depth of the density current, possibly even temporarily cutting off the head from its trailing body.

Full access
Rick Damiani, Gabor Vali, and Samuel Haimov

Abstract

A newly developed technique for airborne dual-Doppler observations with the Wyoming Cloud Radar is used to characterize the velocity fields in vertical planes across cumulus turrets. The clouds sampled were continental in nature, with high bases (near 0°C) and with depths of 2–3 km. Clear evidence was found that the clouds evolved through sequences of bubbles, or thermals, with well-defined toroidal circulations, or vortex rings. The ring core and tube diameters were about 200–600 m, leading to turret sizes of 1–2 km in the horizontal. The largest updraft speeds were observed in the ring centers, but regions of turbulent, ascending air extended behind the thermals to distances comparable with the toroid sizes. Vertical shear of ambient winds, when present, led to a tilting of the updrafts and toroids. Patterns in the reflectivity and velocity fields indicated regions of major intrusions into the thermals, accompanied by entrainment of ambient air, or recycling of larger hydrometeors, depending on their location. In addition, at the upper cloud/environment interface, instability nodes contributed to further entrapment of cloud-free air. The observations presented in this paper constitute clear demonstrations and quantitative characterization of vortical circulations in growing cumulus turrets; they should provide a more reliable basis for the assessment of simulations and of model parameterizations.

Full access
Andrew L. Pazmany and Samuel J. Haimov

Abstract

Coherent power is an alternative to the conventional noise-subtracted power technique for measuring weather radar signal power. The inherent noise-canceling feature of coherent power eliminates the need for estimating and subtracting the noise component, which is required when performing conventional signal power estimation at low signal-to-noise ratio. The coherent power technique is particularly useful when averaging a high number of samples to improve sensitivity to weak signals. In such cases, the signal power is small compared to the noise power and the required accuracy of the estimated noise power may be difficult to achieve. This paper compares conventional signal power estimation with the coherent power measurement technique by investigating bias, standard deviation, and probability of false alarm and detection rates as a function of signal-to-noise ratio and threshold level. This comparison is performed using analytical expressions, numerical simulations, and analysis of cloud and precipitation data collected with the airborne solid-state Ka-band precipitation radar (KPR) operated by the University of Wyoming.

Full access
Bart Geerts, Yang Yang, Roy Rasmussen, Samuel Haimov, and Binod Pokharel

Abstract

Airborne vertical-plane dual-Doppler cloud radar data, collected on wind-parallel flight legs over a mountain in Wyoming during 16 winter storms, are used to analyze the growth, transport, and sedimentation of snow. In all storms the wind is rather strong, such that the flow is unblocked. The sampled clouds are mixed phase, shallow, and generally produce snowfall over the mountain only. The 2D scatterers’ mean motion in the vertical along-track plane below flight level is synthesized using one radar antenna pointing to nadir, and one 30° forward of nadir. This yields instantaneous cross-mountain hydrometeor streamlines.

The dynamics of the orographic flow dominate the precipitation patterns across the mountain. Three patterns are distinguished: the first two contain small convective cells, either boundary layer (BL) convection or elevated convection, the latter likely due to the release of potential instability in orographically lifted air. In these patterns the cross-mountain flow is relatively undisturbed. Precipitation from BL convection falls mostly on the windward side but precipitation from elevated convection may fall mostly in the lee. The third pattern is marked by more stratified flow, often with vertically propagating mountain waves, and with strong, plunging flow in the lee, resulting in rapid clearing of the storm across the crest and occasionally a hydraulic jump. In this case, most snow tends to fall upwind of the crest, although a shallow, sublimating snow “foot” is often seen over the leeward slopes.

Full access
Andrew J. Heymsfield, Patrick C. Kennedy, Steve Massie, Carl Schmitt, Zhien Wang, Samuel Haimov, and Art Rangno

The production of holes and channels in altocumulus clouds by two commercial turboprop aircraft is documented for the first time. An unprecedented dataset combining in situ measurements from microphysical probes with remote sensing measurements from cloud radar and lidar operating from the National Science Foundation (NSF)/NCAR C-130 aircraft, as well as ground-based NOAA and Colorado State University (CSU) radars, is used to describe the radar/lidar properties of a hole punch cloud and channel and the ensuing ice microphysical properties and structure of the ice column that subsequently developed. Ice particle production by commercial turboprop aircraft climbing through clouds much warmer than the regions where contrails are produced has the potential to significantly modify the cloud microphysical properties and effectively seed them under some conditions. Jet aircraft may also be producing hole punch clouds when flying through altocumulus with supercooled droplets at heights lower than their normal cruise altitudes, where contrails can form. Commercial aircraft can therefore generate ice and affect the clouds at temperatures as much as 30°C warmer than the −40°C contrail formation threshold temperature.

Full access
Gabor Vali, Robert D. Kelly, Jeffrey French, Samuel Haimov, David Leon, Robert E. McIntosh, and Andrew Pazmany

Abstract

Observations were made of unbroken marine stratus off the coast of Oregon using the combined capabilities of in situ probes and a 95-GHz radar mounted on an aircraft. Reflectivity and Doppler velocity measurements were obtained in vertical and horizontal planes that extend from the flight lines. Data from three consecutive days were used to examine echo structure and microphysics characteristics. The clouds appeared horizontally homogeneous and light drizzle reached the surface in all three cases.

Radar reflectivity is dominated by drizzle drops over the lower two-thirds to four-fifths of the clouds and by cloud droplets above that. Cells with above-average drizzle concentrations exist in all cases and exhibit a large range of sizes. The cells have irregular horizontal cross sections but occur with a dominant spacing that is roughly 1.2–1.5 times the depth of the cloud layer. Doppler velocities in the vertical are downward in all but a very small fraction of the cloud volumes. The cross correlation between reflectivity and vertical Doppler velocity changes sign at or below the midpoint of the cloud, indicating that in the upper parts of the clouds above-average reflectivities are associated with smaller downward velocities. This correlation and related observations are interpreted as the combined results of upward transport of drizzle drops and of downward motion of regions diluted by entrainment. The in situ measurements support these conclusions.

Full access
Jeffrey R. French, Samuel J. Haimov, Larry D. Oolman, Vanda Grubišić, Stefano Serafin, and Lukas Strauss

Abstract

Two cases of mountain waves, rotors, and the associated turbulence in the lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in southeastern Wyoming are investigated in a two-part study using aircraft observations and numerical simulations. In Part I, observations from in situ instruments and high-resolution cloud radar on board the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft are presented and analyzed. Measurements from the radar compose the first direct observations of wave-induced boundary layer separation.

The data from these two events show some striking similarities but also significant differences. In both cases, rotors were observed; yet one looks like a classical lee-wave rotor, while the other resembles an atmospheric hydraulic jump with midtropospheric gravity wave breaking aloft. High-resolution (30 × 30 m2) dual-Doppler syntheses of the two-dimensional velocity fields in the vertical plane beneath the aircraft reveal the boundary layer separation, the scale and structure of the attendant rotors, and downslope windstorms. In the stronger of the two events, near-surface winds upwind of the boundary layer separation reached 35 m s−1, and vertical winds were in excess of 10 m s−1. Moderate to strong turbulence was observed within and downstream of these regions. In both cases, the rotor extended horizontally 5–10 km and vertically 2–2.5 km. Horizontal vorticity within the rotor zone reached 0.2 s−1. Several subrotors from 500 to 1000 m in diameter were identified inside the main rotor in one of the cases.

Part II presents a modeling study and investigates the kinematic structure and the dynamic evolution of these two events.

Full access
Vanda Grubišić, Stefano Serafin, Lukas Strauss, Samuel J. Haimov, Jeffrey R. French, and Larry D. Oolman

Abstract

Mountain waves and rotors in the lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in southeastern Wyoming are investigated in a two-part paper. Part I by French et al. delivers a detailed observational account of two rotor events: one displays characteristics of a hydraulic jump and the other displays characteristics of a classic lee-wave rotor. In Part II, presented here, results of high-resolution numerical simulations are conveyed and physical processes involved in the formation and dynamical evolution of these two rotor events are examined.

The simulation results reveal that the origin of the observed rotors lies in boundary layer separation, induced by wave perturbations whose amplitudes reach maxima at or near the mountain top. An undular hydraulic jump that gave rise to a rotor in one of these events was found to be triggered by midtropospheric wave breaking and an ensuing strong downslope windstorm. Lee waves spawning rotors developed under conditions favoring wave energy trapping at low levels in different phases of these two events. The upstream shift of the boundary layer separation zone, documented to occur over a relatively short period of time in both events, is shown to be the manifestation of a transition in flow regimes, from downslope windstorms to trapped lee waves, in response to a rapid change in the upstream environment, related to the passage of a short-wave synoptic disturbance aloft.

The model results also suggest that the secondary obstacles surrounding the Medicine Bow Mountains play a role in the dynamics of wave and rotor events by promoting lee-wave resonance in the complex terrain of southeastern Wyoming.

Full access