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Željka Fuchs, Saska Gjorgjievska, and David J. Raymond

Abstract

The analytical model of convectively coupled gravity waves and moisture modes of Raymond and Fuchs is extended to the case of top-heavy and bottom-heavy convective heating profiles. Top-heavy heating profiles favor gravity waves, while bottom-heavy profiles support moisture modes. The latter behavior results from the sensitivity of moisture modes to the gross moist stability, which is more negative with bottom-heavy heating.

A numerical implementation of the analytical model allows calculations in the two-dimensional nonrotating case as well as on a three-dimensional equatorial beta plane. In the two-dimensional case the analytical and numerical models are mostly in agreement, although minor discrepancies occur. In three dimensions the gravity modes become equatorial Kelvin waves whereas the moisture modes are more complex and require further investigation.

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Clark Evans, Heather M. Archambault, Jason M. Cordeira, Cody Fritz, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Saska Gjorgjievska, Kyle S. Griffin, Alexandria Johnson, William A. Komaromi, Sarah Monette, Paytsar Muradyan, Brian Murphy, Michael Riemer, John Sears, Daniel Stern, Brian Tang, and Segayle Thompson

The Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field experiment successfully gathered data from four developing and four decaying/nondeveloping tropical disturbances over the tropical North Atlantic basin between 15 August and 30 September 2010. The invaluable roles played by early career scientists (ECSs) throughout the campaign helped make possible the successful execution of the field program's mission to investigate tropical cyclone formation. ECSs provided critical meteorological information— often obtained from novel ECS-created products—during daily weather briefings that were used by the principal investigators in making mission planning decisions. Once a Gulfstream V (G-V) flight mission was underway, ECSs provided nowcasting support, relaying information that helped the mission scientists to steer clear of potential areas of turbulence aloft. Data from these missions, including dropsonde and GPS water vapor profiler data, were continually obtained, processed, and quality-controlled by ECSs. The dropsonde data provided National Hurricane Center forecasters and PREDICT mission scientists with real-time information regarding the characteristics of tropical disturbances. These data and others will serve as the basis for multiple ECS-led research topics over the years to come and are expected to provide new insights into the tropical cyclone formation process. PREDICT also provided invaluable educational and professional development experiences for ECSs, including the opportunity to critically evaluate observational evidence for tropical cyclone development theories and networking opportunities with their peers and established scientists in the field.

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