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Seiya Nishizawa, Tsuyoshi Yamaura, and Yoshiyuki Kajikawa

Abstract

In this study, the effect of submesoscale topography (i.e., topographical features smaller than a few kilometers in size) on precipitation associated with thermally driven local circulations over a mountainous region is examined in the absence of synoptic-scale precipitation systems through a 100-m-mesh large-eddy simulation experiment. The observed effect of topography on precipitation is different than that identified in previous studies; submesoscale topography is observed to induce a weakening effect on precipitation in this study, while previous studies have suggested that submesoscale topography enhances precipitation. This discrepancy between studies is owing to differences in the scale of the topography and the precipitation-inducing system under consideration. Previous studies have focused on precipitation associated with synoptic-scale systems, where mechanical orographic forcing is dominant. The mechanism of the topographic effect where thermal orographic forcing is dominant was clarified in this study. Under thermally driven local circulation, the convergence of upslope flow near large-scale mountain ridges is one of the main causes of precipitation. Submesoscale topographic features promote the detachment of upslope flow from the mountain surface and vertical mixing in the boundary layer. This detachment and mixing result in a weakening of convergence and updraft and reduction of equivalent potential temperature around the ridge that explains the observed weakening effect on precipitation. Cold pools formed by evaporation of rainfall associated with upslope flow enhance the weakening effect. These results confirm the importance of submesoscale topography in orographic precipitation.

Open access
Masashi Kohma, Seiya Nishizawa, and Shigeo Yoden

Abstract

Polar-night jet oscillation (PJO), which is a low-frequency intraseasonal oscillatory variation in the winter stratosphere, is analyzed statistically with a 14 000-yr-long dataset obtained with an idealized global mechanistic circulation model of the stratosphere and troposphere. After performing an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the low-pass-filtered time series of the northern polar temperature, 10 647 PJO events are identified and classified into four groups. About 80% of them are two groups of warm events while the rest are two groups of cold events, which are newly identified variations with opposite sign from the warm events by the same EOF analysis. All of them show slow downward propagations of a positive or negative temperature anomaly, with a relatively short or long lifetime.

Composite analysis with such a large number of samples shows that each group has its own typical relationship to unfiltered relatively fast variations in the polar stratosphere known as stratospheric sudden warming and polar vortex intensification and to the slow variation in the troposphere known as the Arctic Oscillation. Statistically significant evidence of the downward dynamical influence of PJO on the surface is obtained for a group of warm events with a longer lifetime.

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Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi, Seiya Nishizawa, Shin-ichi Takehiro, Michio Yamada, Keiichi Ishioka, and Shigeo Yoden

Abstract

Jet formation in decaying two-dimensional turbulence on a rotating sphere is reviewed from the viewpoint of Rossby waves. A series of calculations are performed to confirm the behavior of zonal mean flow generation on the parameter space of the rotation rate Ω and Froude number Fr. When the flow is nondivergent and Ω is large, intense easterly circumpolar jets tend to emerge in addition to the appearance of a banded structure of zonal mean flows with alternating flow directions. When the system allows surface elevation, circumpolar jets disappear and an equatorial easterly jet emerges with increasing Fr. The appearance of the intense easterly jets can be understood by the angular-momentum transport associated with the generation, propagation, and absorption of Rossby waves. When the flow is nondivergent, long Rossby waves tend to be absorbed near the poles. In contrast, when Fr is large, Rossby waves can hardly propagate poleward and tend to be absorbed near the equator.

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Tatsuya Yamashita, Masatsugu Odaka, Ko-ichiro Sugiyama, Kensuke Nakajima, Masaki Ishiwatari, Seiya Nishizawa, Yoshiyuki O. Takahashi, and Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi

Abstract

Cloud convection of a CO2 atmosphere where the major constituent condenses is numerically investigated under a setup idealizing a possible warm atmosphere of early Mars, utilizing a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model forced by a fixed cooling profile as a substitute for a radiative process. The authors compare two cases with different critical saturation ratios as condensation criteria and also examine sensitivity to number mixing ratio of condensed particles given externally.

When supersaturation is not necessary for condensation, the entire horizontal domain above the condensation level is continuously covered by clouds irrespective of number mixing ratio of condensed particles. Horizontal-mean cloud mass density decreases exponentially with height. The circulations below and above the condensation level are dominated by dry cellular convection and buoyancy waves, respectively.

When 1.35 is adopted as the critical saturation ratio, clouds appear exclusively as intense, short-lived, quasi-periodic events. Clouds start just above the condensation level and develop upward, but intense updrafts exist only around the cloud top; they do not extend to the bottom of the condensation layer. The cloud layer is rapidly warmed by latent heat during the cloud events, and then the layer is slowly cooled by the specified thermal forcing, and supersaturation gradually develops leading to the next cloud event. The periodic appearance of cloud events does not occur when number mixing ratio of condensed particles is large.

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Takumi Honda, Takemasa Miyoshi, Guo-Yuan Lien, Seiya Nishizawa, Ryuji Yoshida, Sachiho A. Adachi, Koji Terasaki, Kozo Okamoto, Hirofumi Tomita, and Kotaro Bessho

Abstract

Japan’s new geostationary satellite Himawari-8, the first of a series of the third-generation geostationary meteorological satellites including GOES-16, has been operational since July 2015. Himawari-8 produces high-resolution observations with 16 frequency bands every 10 min for full disk, and every 2.5 min for local regions. This study aims to assimilate all-sky every-10-min infrared (IR) radiances from Himawari-8 with a regional numerical weather prediction model and to investigate its impact on real-world tropical cyclone (TC) analyses and forecasts for the first time. The results show that the assimilation of Himawari-8 IR radiances improves the analyzed TC structure in both inner-core and outer-rainband regions. The TC intensity forecasts are also improved due to Himawari-8 data because of the improved TC structure analysis.

Open access