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Junsei Kondo, Tsuneo Kuwagata, and Shigenori Haginoya


Nocturnal cooling and daytime heating in a basin were studied on clear and calm days by means of heat budget observations. In the nighttime, drainage flow occurs along the basin sideslope and advects cold air to the boundary layer over the basin bottom (BBL), intensifying the cooling rate of the layer. A nocturnal cold air lake develops in the basin, attaining a depth nearly equal to the topographical depth of the basin. Heat budget analysis of the whole basin surface shows that net radiative flux closely balances with sensible heat flux and ground heat conduction.

In the daytime, the BBL is warmed not only by sensible heat flux from the surface of the basin bottom, but also by local subsidence heating. This local subsidence above the basin bottom depresses development of the convective boundary layer until the nocturnal cold air lake vanishes completely. The subsidence velocity increases with time after sunrise. Over the whole basin surface, net radiative flux closely balances with sensible and latent heat fluxes.

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Yuichiro Oku, Hirohiko Ishikawa, Shigenori Haginoya, and Yaoming Ma


The diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations in land surface temperature (LST) on the Tibetan Plateau from 1996 to 2002 are analyzed using the hourly LST dataset obtained by Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5 (GMS-5) observations. Comparing LST retrieved from GMS-5 with independent precipitation amount data demonstrates the consistent and complementary relationship between them. The results indicate an increase in the LST over this period. The daily minimum has risen faster than the daily maximum, resulting in a narrowing of the diurnal range of LST. This is in agreement with the observed trends in both global and plateau near-surface air temperature. Since the near-surface air temperature is mainly controlled by LST, this result ensures a warming trend in near-surface air temperature.

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