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Hironori Fudeyasu, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Yukitaka Ohashi, Shin-ichi Suzuki, Yasutomo Kiyohara, and Yu Hozumi


The “Hirodo-kaze,” a local strong wind accompanying the downslope winds in Japan, is examined using a mesoscale numerical model. The model successfully reproduces the major features of the observed Hirodo-kaze that occurred in association with Typhoon Pabuk. During the Hirodo-kaze, the severe downslope winds in the transitional flow develop in the lower troposphere below the mean-state critical layer. The Hirodo-kaze is closely linked to the strong wind region accompanying the severe downslope winds. After the cessation of the Hirodo-kaze, distinct mountain waves dominate in the lower troposphere where the Scorer parameter l 2 decreases with height. The region of strong wind retreats windward as the Hirodo-kaze ceases. Temporal changes in the characteristics of mountain waves in the lee of Mt. Nagi are primarily attributed to the changes in the large-scale environmental winds due to the movement of the intense cyclone.

Environmental conditions favorable for the occurrence of the Hirodo-kaze include strong northerlies in the lower troposphere overlain by southerlies in the middle troposphere. The intense cyclone that moves over the sea southwest of the Kii peninsula creates favorable environmental conditions that support the occurrence of the Hirodo-kaze.

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Tsuyoshi Nakatani, Ryohei Misumi, Yoshinori Shoji, Kazuo Saito, Hiromu Seko, Naoko Seino, Shin-ichi Suzuki, Yukari Shusse, Takeshi Maesaka, and Hirofumi Sugawara
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Ryohei Misumi, Yoshinori Shoji, Kazuo Saito, Hiromu Seko, Naoko Seino, Shin-ichi Suzuki, Yukari Shusse, Kohin Hirano, Stéphane Bélair, V. Chandrasekar, Dong-In Lee, Augusto Jose Pereira Filho, Tsuyoshi Nakatani, and Masayuki Maki


The Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities (TOMACS) began as a Japanese domestic research project in 2010 and aimed to elucidate the mechanisms behind local high-impact weather (LHIW) in urban areas, to improve forecasting techniques for LHIW, and to provide high-resolution weather information to end-users (local governments, private companies, and the general public) through social experiments. Since 2013, the project has been expanded as an international Research and Development Project (RDP) of the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Through this project, the following results were obtained: 1) observation data for LHIW around Tokyo were recorded using a dense network of X-band radars, a C-band polarimetric radar, a Ku-band fast-scanning radar, coherent Doppler lidars, and the Global Navigation Satellite System; 2) quantitative precipitation estimation algorithms for X-band polarimetric radars have been developed as part of an international collaboration; 3) convection initiation by the interaction of sea breezes and urban impacts on the occurrence of heavy precipitation around Tokyo were elucidated by a dense observation network, high-resolution numerical simulations, and different urban surface models; 4) an “imminent” nowcast system based on the vertically integrated liquid water derived from the X-band polarimetric radar network has been developed; 5) assimilation methods for data from advanced observation instruments such as coherent Doppler lidars and polarimetric radars were developed; and 6) public use of high-resolution radar data were promoted through the social experiments.

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