Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 26 items for

  • Author or Editor: Shu-Hua Chen x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Shu-Hua Chen

Abstract

Three observational datasets of Hurricane Isidore (in 2002) were analyzed and compared: the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) winds, and dropsonde winds. SSM/I and QuikSCAT winds were on average about 1.9 and 0.3 m s−1 stronger, respectively, than dropsonde winds. With more than 20 000 points of data, SSM/I wind speed was about 2.2 m s−1 stronger than QuikSCAT. Comparison of the wind direction observed by QuikSCAT with those from the dropsondes showed that the quality of QuikSCAT data is good. The effect of assimilating SSM/I wind speeds and/or QuikSCAT wind vectors for the analysis of Hurricane Isidore was assessed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system. For the Hurricane Isidore case study, it was found that the assimilation of either satellite winds strengthened the cyclonic circulation in the analysis. However, the increment of the QuikSCAT wind analysis is more complicated than that from the SSM/I analysis due to the correction of the storm location, a positive result from the assimilation of wind vectors. The increase in low-level wind speeds enhanced the air–sea interaction processes and improved the simulated intensity for Isidore. In addition, the storm structure was better simulated. Assimilation of QuikSCAT wind vectors clearly improved simulation of the storm track, in particular during the later period of the simulation, but lack of information about the wind direction from SSM/I data prevented it from having much of an effect. Assessing the assimilation of QuikSCAT wind speed versus wind vector data confirmed this hypothesis. The track improvement partially resulted from the relocation of the storm’s initial position after assimilation of the wind vectors. For this case study, it was found that the assimilation of SSM/I or QuikSCAT data had the greatest impact on the Hurricane Isidore simulation during the first 2 days.

Full access
Zhan Zhao and Shu-Hua Chen

Abstract

Identifying pollutant sources that contribute to downstream locations is important for policy making and air-quality control. In this study, a computationally economic signal technique was implemented into a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric model to help to identify source–receptor relationships. An idealized supercell case and a semireal air-pollution case in Turkey were used to investigate the potential of the technique. For each pollutant, signals with various frequencies were emitted from different source locations and added into that particular type of emitted pollutants. The time series of pollutant concentration collected at receptors were then projected onto frequency space using the Fourier transform and short-time Fourier transform methods to identify the source locations. During the model integration, a particular tracer was also emitted from each pollutant source location (i.e., a conventional method to study the source–receptor relationship) to validate and evaluate the signal technique. Results show that frequencies could be slightly shifted after signals were transported for some distance and that evident secondary frequencies (i.e., beat frequencies) could be generated as a result of nonlinear effects. Although these could potentially confuse the identification of signals released from source points, signals were still distinguishable in this study. Results from a sensitivity test of the diffusion effect on different frequencies suggest that the effect of diffusion on amplitude damping is stronger for higher frequencies than for lower frequencies.

Full access
Shu-Hua Chen and Wen-Yih Sun

Abstract

An explicit one-dimensional time-dependent tilting cloud model has been developed for use in cumulus parameterizations. The tilting axis is not necessarily orthogonal to the (r, θ) plane, making the horizontal axisymmetric assumption more reasonable. This explicit time-dependent tilting model (ETTM) consists of an updraft and a downdraft, which are governed by the same dynamic and thermodynamic equations. The updraft is initiated by a moist thermal bubble, while the downdraft is consequently induced by evaporative cooling and the drag force of precipitation separating from the tilting updraft instead of being arbitrarily initialized.

The updraft is capable of reproducing the major features of a deep cloud such as overshooting cooling above the cloud top, evaporative cooling near the surface, and drying in the lower atmosphere at dissipating stages. The entrainment–detrainment rate in this model is well defined, and its time variation is quite significant. Moreover, the vertical profile of the air inside the updraft does not follow the moist adiabat after deep convection. For the downdraft, the total precipitation and mass flux at low levels contributed from the downdraft cannot be neglected in this case study. In addition, the downdraft can bring dry air from middle levels to lower levels.

Three sensitivity tests—the environmental sounding, the tilting angle, and the radius of the updraft–downdraft— have also been conducted. The cooling–warming of a downdraft near the surface is sensitive to the environmental sounding, consistent with results from Srivastava. The cloud life span, maximum vertical velocity, precipitation amount, and vertical mass flux are strongly influenced by the tilting angle and the radius of the cloud.

The results from the ETTM simulation are quite reasonable and promising. However, some deficiencies of this model still exist, and more research will be conducted to improve its performance. The final goal is to implement this 1D model in a mesoscale model's cumulus parameterization scheme.

Full access
Shu-hua Chen and Wen-yih Sun

Abstract

A fully compressible, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic model is developed using a semi-implicit scheme to avoid an extremely small time step. As a result of applying the implicit scheme to high-frequency waves, an elliptic partial differential equation (EPDE) has been introduced. A multigrid solver is applied to solve the EPDEs, which include cross-derivative terms due to terrain-following coordinate transformation.

Several experiments have been performed to evaluate the model as well as the performance of the scheme with respect to tolerance number, relaxation choice, sweeps of prerelaxation and postrelaxation, and a flexible hybrid coordinate (FHC).

An FHC with two functions (base and deviation functions) is introduced. The basic function provides constant vertical grid spacing required in the multigrid solver, while the deviation function helps to adjust the vertical resolution.

Full access
Shu-Hua Chen and Yuh-Lang Lin

Abstract

In this study, idealized simulations are performed for a conditionally unstable flow over a two-dimensional mountain ridge in order to investigate the propagation and types of cloud precipitation systems controlled by the unsaturated moist Froude number (Fw) and the convective available potential energy (CAPE). A two-dimensional moist flow regime diagram, based on Fw and CAPE, is proposed for a conditionally unstable flow passing over a two-dimensional mesoscale mountain ridge. The characteristics of these flow regimes are 1) regime I: flow with an upstream-propagating convective system and an early, slowly moving convective system over the mountain; 2) regime II: flow with a long-lasting orographic convective system over the mountain peak, upslope, or lee slope; 3) regime III: flow with an orographic convective or mixed convective and stratiform precipitation system over the mountain and a downstream-propagating convective system; and 4) regime IV: flow with an orographic stratiform precipitation system over the mountain and possibly a downstream-propagating cloud system. Note that the fourth regime was not included in the flow regimes proposed by Chu and Lin and Chen and Lin. The propagation of the convective systems is explained by the orographic blocking and density current forcing associated with the cold-air outflow produced by evaporative cooling acting against the basic flow, which then determines the propagation and cloud types of the simulated precipitation systems.

Full access
Shu-Chih Yang, Shu-Hua Chen, Shu-Ya Chen, Ching-Yuang Huang, and Ching-Sen Chen

Abstract

Global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) data have been broadly used in global and regional numerical weather predictions. Assimilation with the bending angle often performs better than refractivity, which is inverted from the bending angle under spherical assumption and is sometimes associated with negative biases at the lower troposphere; however, the bending angle operator also requires a higher model top as used in global models. This study furnishes the feasibility of bending-angle assimilation in the prediction of heavy precipitation systems with a regional model. The local RO operators for simulating bending angle and refractivity are implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) framework. The impacts of assimilating RO data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) using both operators are evaluated on the prediction of a heavy precipitation episode during Southwest Monsoon Experiment intensive observing period 8 (SoWMEX-IOP8) in 2008. Results show that both the refractivity and bending angle provide a favorable condition for generating this heavy rainfall event. In comparison with the refractivity data, the advantage of assimilating the bending angle is identified in the midtroposphere for deepening of the moist layer that leads to a rainfall forecast closer to the observations.

Full access
Song-You Hong, Jimy Dudhia, and Shu-Hua Chen

Abstract

A revised approach to cloud microphysical processes in a commonly used bulk microphysics parameterization and the importance of correctly representing properties of cloud ice are discussed. Several modifications are introduced to more realistically simulate some of the ice microphysical processes. In addition to the assumption that ice nuclei number concentration is a function of temperature, a new and separate assumption is developed in which ice crystal number concentration is a function of ice amount. Related changes in ice microphysics are introduced, and the impact of sedimentation of ice crystals is also investigated.

In an idealized thunderstorm simulation, the distribution of simulated clouds and precipitation is sensitive to the assumptions in microphysical processes, whereas the impact of the sedimentation of cloud ice is small. Overall, the modifications introduced to microphysical processes play a role in significantly reducing cloud ice and increasing snow at colder temperatures and slightly increasing cloud ice and decreasing snow at warmer temperatures. A mesoscale simulation experiment for a heavy rainfall case indicates that impact due to the inclusion of sedimentation of cloud ice is not negligible but is still smaller than that due to the microphysics changes. Together with the sedimentation of ice, the new microphysics reveals a significant improvement in high-cloud amount, surface precipitation, and large-scale mean temperature through a better representation of the ice cloud–radiation feedback.

Full access
Yi-Chin Liu, Pingkuan Di, Shu-Hua Chen, and John DaMassa

Abstract

To better understand the change in California’s climate over the past century, the long-term variability and extreme events of precipitation as well as minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures during the rainy season (from November to March) are investigated using observations. Their relationships to 28 rainy season average climate indices with and without time lags are also studied. The precipitation variability is found to be highly correlated with the tropical/Northern Hemisphere pattern (TNH) index at zero time lag with the highest correlation in Northern California and the Sierra and the correlation decreasing southward. This is an important finding because there have been no conclusive studies on the dominant climate modes that modulate precipitation variability in Northern California. It is found that the TNH modulates California precipitation variability through the development of a positive (negative) height anomaly and its associated low-level moisture fluxes over the northeast Pacific Ocean during the positive (negative) TNH phase. Temperature fields, especially minimum temperature, are found to be primarily modulated by the east Pacific/North Pacific pattern, Pacific decadal oscillation, North Pacific pattern, and Pacific–North American pattern at zero time lag via changes in the lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Regression analysis suggests a combination of important climate indices would improve predictability for precipitation and minimum temperature statewide and subregionally compared to the use of a single climate index. While California’s precipitation currently is primarily projected by ENSO, this study suggests that using the combination of the TNH and ENSO indices results in better predictability than using ENSO indices only.

Open access
Dustin F. P. Grogan, Terrence R. Nathan, and Shu-Hua Chen

Abstract

The direct radiative effects of Saharan mineral dust (SMD) aerosols on the nonlinear evolution of the African easterly jet–African easterly wave (AEJ–AEW) system is examined using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled to an online dust model. The SMD-modified AEW life cycles are characterized by four stages: enhanced linear growth, weakened nonlinear stabilization, larger peak amplitude, and smaller long-time amplitude. During the linear growth and nonlinear stabilization stages, the SMD increases the generation of eddy available potential energy (APE); this occurs where the maximum in the mean meridional SMD gradient is coincident with the critical surface. As the AEWs evolve beyond the nonlinear stabilization stage, the discrimination between SMD particle sizes due to sedimentation becomes more pronounced; the finer particles meridionally expand, while the coarser particles settle to the surface. The result is a reduction in the eddy APE at the base and the top of the plume.

The SMD enhances the Eliassen–Palm (EP) flux divergence and residual-mean meridional circulation, which generally oppose each other throughout the AEW life cycle. The SMD-modified residual-mean meridional circulation initially dominates to accelerate the flow but quickly surrenders to the EP flux divergence, which causes an SMD-enhanced deceleration of the AEJ during the linear growth and nonlinear stabilization stages. Throughout the AEW life cycle, the SMD-modified AEJ is elevated and the peak winds are larger than without SMD. During the first (second) half of the AEW life cycle, the SMD-modified wave fluxes shift the AEJ axis farther equatorward (poleward) of its original SMD-free position.

Full access
Terrence R. Nathan, Dustin F. P. Grogan, and Shu-Hua Chen

Abstract

A theoretical framework is presented that exposes the radiative–dynamical relationships that govern the subcritical destabilization of African easterly waves (AEWs) by Saharan mineral dust (SMD) aerosols. The framework is built on coupled equations for quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV), temperature, and SMD mixing ratio. A perturbation analysis yields, for a subcritical, but otherwise arbitrary, zonal-mean background state, analytical expressions for the growth rate and frequency of the AEWs. The expressions are functions of the domain-averaged wave activity, which is generated by the direct radiative effects of the SMD. The wave activity is primarily modulated by the Doppler-shifted phase speed and the background gradients in PV and SMD.

Using an idealized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled to an interactive dust model, a linear analysis shows that, for a subcritical African easterly jet (AEJ) and a background SMD distribution that are consistent with observations, the SMD destabilizes the AEWs and slows their westward propagation, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. The SMD-induced growth rates are commensurate with, and can sometimes exceed, those obtained in previous dust-free studies in which the AEWs grow on AEJs that are supercritical with respect to the threshold for barotropic–baroclinic instability. The clarity of the theoretical framework can serve as a tool for understanding and predicting the effects of SMD aerosols on the linear instability of AEWs in subcritical, zonal-mean AEJs.

Full access