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Mengyan Feng, Weihua Ai, Guanyu Chen, Wen Lu, and Shuo Ma

Abstract

One-dimensional synthetic aperture microwave radiometer (1D-SAMR) can provide remote sensing images at a higher spatial resolution than those from traditional real aperture microwave radiometers. As 1D-SAMR operates at multiple incidence angles, we proposed a multiple linear regression method to retrieve sea surface temperature at an incidence angle between 0° and 65°. Assuming that a 1D-SAMR operates at various frequencies (i.e., 6.9, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8 and 36.5 GHz), a radiation transmission forward model was developed to simulate the brightness temperature measured by the 1D-SAMR. The sensitivity of the five frequencies to sea surface temperature was examined, and we evaluated the reliability of the regression method proposed in this study. Furthermore, 11 schemes with various frequency combinations were applied to retrieve sea surface temperature. The results showed that the five-frequency combination scheme performed better than the other schemes. This study also found that the accuracy of retrieved sea surface temperature is dependent on incidence angles. Finally, we suggested that the incidence angle range of the 1D-SAMR is necessary to be 30°–60° based on the relationship between the accuracy of retrieved sea surface temperature and the incidence angles.

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Jun Jiang, Wei Yan, Shuo Ma, Yangyang Jie, Xiarong Zhang, Shensen Hu, Lei Fan, and Linyu Xia

Abstract

The day–night band (DNB) low-light-level visible sensor, mounted on the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite, can measure visible radiances from the earth and atmosphere (solar/lunar reflection, and natural/anthropogenic nighttime light emissions) during both day and night and can achieve unprecedented nighttime low-light-level imaging with its accurate radiometric calibration and fine spatiotemporal resolution. Based on the good characteristics of DNB, a multichannel threshold (MCT) algorithm combining DNB with other Visible–Infrared Imager–Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) channels is proposed to monitor nighttime fog/low stratus. Through a gradual separation of the underlying surface (land, vegetation, water bodies, and city lights), snow, and high/medium clouds, a fog/low-stratus region can ultimately be extracted by the algorithm. Then, the algorithmic feasibility is verified by three typical cases of heavy fog/low stratus in China. The experimental results demonstrate that the outcomes of the MCT algorithm approximately coincide with the ground-measured results. Furthermore, the MCT algorithm shows promise for nighttime fog/low-stratus detection in some example cases with about a 0.84 average probability of detection (POD), a 0.73 average critical success index (CSI), and a 0.15 average false alarm ratio (FAR), which reveals some improvement over the conventional dual-channel difference (DCD) algorithm.

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Shensen Hu, Shuo Ma, Wei Yan, Neil P. Hindley, Kai Xu, and Jun Jiang

Abstract

Atmospheric gravity waves are a kind of mesoscale disturbance, commonly found in the atmospheric system, that plays a key role in a series of mesospheric dynamic processes. When propagating to the upper atmosphere, the gravity waves will disturb the local temperature and density, and then modulate the intensity of the surrounding airglow radiation. As a result, the presence of gravity waves on a moonless night can usually cause the airglow to reveal ripple features in low-light images. In this paper we have applied a two-dimensional Stockwell transform technique (2DST) to airglow measurements from nighttime low-light images of the day–night band on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership. To our knowledge this study is the first to measure localized mesospheric gravity wave brightness amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths, and propagation directions using such a method and data. We find that the method can characterize the general shape and amplitude of concentric gravity wave patterns, capturing the dominant features and directions with a good degree of accuracy. The key strength of our 2DST application is that our approach could be tuned and then automated in the future to process tens of thousands of low-light images, globally characterizing gravity wave parameters in this historically poorly studied layer of the atmosphere.

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Shuo Ma, Wei Yan, Yunxian Huang, Jun Jiang, Shensen Hu, and Yingqiang Wang

Abstract

Many quantitative uses of the nighttime imagery provided by low-light sensors, such as the day–night band (DNB) on board the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP), have emerged recently. Owing to the low nighttime radiance, low-light calibration at night must be investigated in detail. Traditional vicarious calibration methods are based on some targets with nearly invariant surface properties under lunar illumination. However, the relatively stable light emissions may also be used to realize the radiometric calibration under low light. This paper presents a low-light calibration method based on bridge lights, and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) DNB data are used to assess the proposed method. A comparison of DNB high-gain-stage (HGS) radiances over a 2-yr period from August 2012 to July 2014 demonstrates that the predictions are consistent with the observations, and the agreement between the predictions and the observations is on the order of −2.9% with an uncertainty of 9.3% (1σ) for the Hangzhou Bay Bridge and −3.9% with an uncertainty of 7.2% (1σ) for the Donghai Bridge. Such a calibration method based on stable light emissions has a wide application prospect for the calibration of low-light sensors at night.

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