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Roy H. Blackmer Jr. and Sidney M. Serebreny

Abstract

Radar data collected by a network of ships, shore stations and aircraft over the eastern Pacific from mid-February to the end of June 1965, have been studied. Analyses of these radar data and concurrent TIROSIX photographs were made. The data sample included deep cyclones with extensive radar-detected precipitation, weaker cyclones with localized rainfall, cold anticyclones with extensive air mass showers, and blocking anticyclones with no precipitation. In the latter case it has been found that the appearance of the cloud cover is a good indicator of areas of anomalous radio propagation. Models have been prepared that illustrate the varying patterned association of cloud and rainfall characteristic of such synoptic situations. Such associations range from comparable cloud-precipitation areas through scattered showers where only a portion of the clouds contain precipitation, to complete absence of precipitation within large areas of low stratiform clouds or fog as in a blocking anticyclone.

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Roland E. Nagle and Sidney M. Serebreny

Abstract

Satellite-observed cloud patterns for five days during the evolution of a major, extratropical maritime cyclone associated with a strong Ω-shaped blocking pattern were studied for the period when the storm existed over a radarscope data collection network. Cloud distributions at 24-hr intervals were compared with the surface and upper-level synoptic conditions to ascertain cloud-synoptic pattern precipitation pattern relationships. Precipitation distributions are shown in relationship to the cloud features which appear to be characteristic of extratropical maritime cyclones.

In general, the very low percentage of clouds that precipitate at any given time is strongly re-emphasized, as well as the limited area within a storm in which precipitating clouds are found. Shower patterns within cellular type convective clouds are shown to develop in the same configuration as the clouds and to be subject to diurnal effects. These showers were found to have lasted at least two hours, a considerably longer period than comparable continental air-mass showers. Minor cloud vortices were found which persisted along regions of confluence of contrasting air masses around the periphery of the major spiral cloud pattern associated with the storm; these minor vortices appeared to rotate with the gross cloud pattern and were loci of heavy precipitation activity.

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Sidney M. Serebreny, Eldon J. Wiegman, and Rex G. Hadfield

Abstract

This article restates some of the important features in an idealized jet stream complex and presents cross sections showing the structure of jet streams during selected synoptic situations.

The jet stream complex consists of the Arctic Front jet stream, two mid-latitude jet streams, and the Subtropical jet stream. The two mid-latitude jet streams, when existing individually, may be identified as the Interpolar Front and Polar Front jet streams, respectively, but when combined are simply termed the Polar Front jet stream. In various synoptic situations this complex is expanded to a state in which each jet stream is a completely distinct entity, or it may be telescoped to such a degree that all jet streams are merged in one broad belt of high speed winds. Synoptic examples are given for four well-defined types of jet stream complex: (1) Arctic, Polar and Subtropical jet streams distinctly separated; (2) separate mid-latitude jet streams (Interpolar and Polar jet streams) and the Subtropical jet stream; (3) mid-latitude westerly jet stream field over a well-developed ridge; (4) combining of the mid-latitude westerly jet stream and the Subtropical jet stream. Descriptions of the air masses, lapse rates, tropopauses and wind profiles in the jet stream complex are given.

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Sidney M. Serebreny, Eldon J. Wiegman, Rex G. Hadfield, and William E. Evans

An electronic system to study ATS photographs is described. Cloud pictures are scanned by a TV camera which inputs cloud data onto memory discs from which the data can be recalled and displayed on a cathode-ray tube. Display options include time-lapse, variable magnification and frame-to-frame differencing. Electronic cursors permit digital readout of displacements of identifiable cloud elements. Data handling techniques and the computer-data process for this system are described.

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