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Yue Sun, Haishan Chen, Siguang Zhu, Jie Zhang, and Jiangfeng Wei

Abstract

Under the background of global warming, the Eurasian warming features evident spatial heterogeneity, and Northeast Asia (NEA) is one of the regions with the most significant summer warming. Based on reanalysis data and the CESM1.2.2 model, we investigated the possible impacts of spring Eurasian snowmelt on recent NEA summer warming and the relevant mechanisms. Results show that increased (decreased) spring snowmelt over eastern Europe to western Siberia (EEWS) is closely linked to NEA summer warming (cooling). Increased spring snowmelt can wet the soil, weakening surface sensible heating to the atmosphere and cooling the atmosphere. The persistent anomalous soil moisture and surface sensible heat induce geopotential height decrease over EEWS and strengthen the eastward-propagating wave train. Furthermore, positive geopotential height anomalies appear in downstream NEA in summer via the adjustment of the atmospheric circulation. Controlled by the anomalous high pressure system, the west part of NEA is affected by the southerly warm advection, while the east is affected by adiabatic warming induced by the dominant descending motion. Meanwhile, decreased cloud and increased incident solar radiation over NEA favor summer land surface warming. Model results suggest that CESM1.2.2 can basically reproduce the positive correlation between NEA summer land surface temperature and EEWS spring snowmelt. With the positive spring snowmelt forcing, the simulated positive soil moisture and negative sensible heat anomalies persist from spring to summer over EEWS. Consequently, negative geopotential height anomalies appear over the snowmelt region while positive anomalies occur around Lake Baikal, resulting in evident NEA land surface warming.

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Jingqiu Yang, Haishan Chen, Yidi Song, Siguang Zhu, Botao Zhou, and Jie Zhang

Abstract

Eurasian continent experienced significant warming during the past decades. West Asia locates in arid/semi-arid zone and its warming amplification has drawn lots of attention. However, the climatic effect of such a warming is not clear yet. In this study, we explored the possible impacts of recent land surface warming over West Asia on the atmospheric general circulation and climate. Results show that abnormal spring land surface warming over West Asia tends to increase precipitation over North China but decrease (increase) precipitation (air temperature) over Northeast China in early summer (June). It is noted that the precipitation anomalies are much stronger over the eastern region of North/Northeast China. Further analysis suggests abnormal spring land surface warming can trigger eastward-propagating disturbance via diabatic heating, which benefits intensified the atmospheric circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) pattern, causing anomalous circulation and climate in early summer over northern China. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that abnormal spring land surface warming can increase the atmospheric baroclinic instability and trigger Rossby waves that propagate along the westerly jet stream (WJS), resulting in the formation of CGT. Due to persistent land surface thermal forcing and the interaction between the basic flow (especially WJS) and CGT, the CGT tends to be intensified. The anomalous wave center over East Asia in early summer is responsible for the precipitation increases (decreases) over North (Northeast) China and the evident warming in Northeast China. Our results suggest that the spring land surface thermal anomalies over West Asia can be a potential signal for short-term prediction of early summer climate over northern China.

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Shanlei Sun, Haishan Chen, Ge Sun, Weimin Ju, Guojie Wang, Xing Li, Guixia Yan, Chujie Gao, Jin Huang, Fangmin Zhang, Siguang Zhu, and Wenjian Hua

Abstract

This study investigated monthly and annual reference evapotranspiration changes over southwestern China (SWC) from 1960 to 2012, using the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ report 56 (FAO-56) Penman–Monteith equation and routine meteorological observations at 269 weather sites. During 1960–2012, the monthly and annual decreased at most sites. Moreover, the SWC regional average trend in annual was significantly negative (p < 0.05); this trend was the same in most months. A new separation method using several numerical experiments was proposed to quantify each driving factor’s contribution to changes and exhibited higher accuracy based on several validation criteria, after which an attribution analysis was performed. Across SWC, the declining annual was mainly due to decreased net radiation (RN). Spatially, the annual changes at most sites in eastern SWC (excluding southeastern West Guangxi) were generally due to RN, whereas wind speed (WND) or vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was the determinant at other sites. Nevertheless, the determinants differed among 12 months. For the whole SWC, increased VPD in February and decreased WND in April, May, and October were the determinant of decreased ; however, decreased RN was the determinant in other months. Overall, the determinant of the monthly changes exhibited a complex spatial pattern. A complete analysis of changes and the related physical mechanisms in SWC is necessary to better understand hydroclimatological extremes (e.g., droughts) and to develop appropriate strategies to sustain regional development (e.g., water resources and agriculture). Importantly, this separation method provides new perspective for quantitative attribution analyses and thus may be implemented in various scientific fields (e.g., climatology and hydrology).

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