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Alessandro Battaglia
,
Simone Tanelli
, and
Pavlos Kollias

Abstract

Spaceborne Doppler radars have the potential to provide key missing observations of convective vertical air motions especially over the tropical oceans. Such measurements can improve understanding of the role of tropical convection in vertical energy transport and its interaction with the environment. Several millimeter wavelength Doppler radar concepts have been proposed since the 1990s. The Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) will be the first Dopplerized atmospheric radar in space but has not been optimized for Doppler measurements in deep convective clouds.

The key challenge that constrains the CPR performance in convective clouds is the range–Doppler dilemma. Polarization diversity (PD) offers a solution to this constraint by decoupling the coherency (Doppler) requirement from the unambiguous range requirement. Careful modeling of the radar signal depolarization and its impact on radar receiver channel cross talk is needed to accurately assess the performance of the PD approach.

The end-to-end simulator presented in this work allows reproduction of the signal sensed by a Doppler radar equipped with polarization diversity when overpassing realistic three-dimensional convective cells, with all relevant cross-talk sources accounted for. The notional study highlights that multiple scattering is the primary source of cross talk, highly detrimental for millimeter Doppler velocity accuracy. The ambitious scientific requirement of 1 m s−1 accuracy at 500-m integration for reflectivities above −15 dBZ are within reach for a W-band radar with a 2.5-m antenna with optimal values of the pulse-pair interval between 20 and 30 μs but only once multiple scattering and ghost-contaminated regions are screened out. The identification of such areas is key for Doppler accuracies and can be achieved by employing an interlaced pulse-pair mode that measures the cross and the copolar reflectivities. To mitigate the impact of attenuation and multiple scattering, the Ka band has been considered as either alternative or additional to the W band. However, a Ka system produces worse Doppler performances than a W-band system with the same 2.5-m antenna size. Furthermore, in deep convection it results in similar levels of multiple scattering and therefore it does not increase significantly the depth of penetration. In addition, the larger footprint causes stronger nonuniform beam-filling effects. One advantage of the Ka-band option is the larger Nyquist velocity that tends to reduce the Doppler accuracies. More significant benefits are derived from the Ka band when observing precipitation not as intense as the deep convection is considered here.

This study demonstrates that polarization diversity indeed represents a very promising methodology capable of significantly reducing aliasing and Doppler moment estimate errors, two main error sources for Doppler velocity estimates in deep convective systems and a key step to achieving typical mission requirements for convection-oriented millimeter radar-based spaceborne missions.

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Pavlos Kollias
,
Simone Tanelli
,
Alessandro Battaglia
, and
Aleksandra Tatarevic

Abstract

The joint European Space Agency–Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ESA–JAXA) Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and features the first atmospheric Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) with Doppler capability in space. Here, the uncertainty of the CPR Doppler velocity measurements in cirrus clouds and large-scale precipitation areas is discussed. These regimes are characterized by weak vertical motion and relatively horizontally homogeneous conditions and thus represent optimum conditions for acquiring high-quality CPR Doppler measurements. A large dataset of radar reflectivity observations from ground-based radars is used to examine the homogeneity of the cloud fields at the horizontal scales of interest. In addition, a CPR instrument model that uses as input ground-based radar observations and outputs simulations of CPR Doppler measurements is described. The simulator accurately accounts for the beam geometry, nonuniform beam-filling, and signal integration effects, and it is applied to representative cases of cirrus cloud and stratiform precipitation. The simulated CPR Doppler velocities are compared against those derived from the ground-based radars. The unfolding of the CPR Doppler velocity is achieved using simple conditional rules and a smoothness requirement for the CPR Doppler measurements. The application of nonuniform beam-filling Doppler velocity bias-correction algorithms is found necessary even under these optimum conditions to reduce the CPR Doppler biases. Finally, the analysis indicates that a minimum along-track integration of 5000 m is needed to reduce the uncertainty in the CPR Doppler measurements to below 0.5 m s−1 and thus enable the detection of the melting layer and the characterization of the rain- and ice-layer Doppler velocities.

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Mircea Grecu
,
Lin Tian
,
William S. Olson
, and
Simone Tanelli

Abstract

In this study, an algorithm to retrieve precipitation from spaceborne dual-frequency (13.8 and 35.6 GHz, or Ku/Ka band) radar observations is formulated and investigated. Such algorithms will be of paramount importance in deriving radar-based and combined radar–radiometer precipitation estimates from observations provided by the forthcoming NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. In GPM, dual-frequency Ku-/Ka-band radar observations will be available only within a narrow swath (approximately one-half of the width of the Ku-band radar swath) over the earth’s surface. Therefore, a particular challenge is to develop a flexible radar retrieval algorithm that can be used to derive physically consistent precipitation profile estimates across the radar swath irrespective of the availability of Ka-band radar observations at any specific location inside that swath, in other words, an algorithm capable of exploiting the information provided by dual-frequency measurements but robust in the absence of Ka-band channel. In the present study, a unified, robust precipitation retrieval algorithm able to interpret either Ku-only or dual-frequency Ku-/Ka-band radar observations in a manner consistent with the information content of the observations is formulated. The formulation is based on 1) a generalized Hitschfeld–Bordan attenuation correction method that yields generic Ku-only precipitation profile estimates and 2) an optimization procedure that adjusts the Ku-band estimates to be physically consistent with coincident Ka-band reflectivity observations and surface reference technique–based path-integrated attenuation estimates at both Ku and Ka bands. The algorithm is investigated using synthetic and actual airborne radar observations collected in the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign. In the synthetic data investigation, the dual-frequency algorithm performed significantly better than a single-frequency algorithm; dual-frequency estimates, however, are still sensitive to various assumptions such as the particle size distribution shape, vertical and cloud water distributions, and scattering properties of the ice-phase precipitation.

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Simone Tanelli
,
Eastwood Im
,
Satoru Kobayashi
,
Roberto Mascelloni
, and
Luca Facheris

Abstract

In this paper a sea surface radar echo spectral analysis technique to correct for the rainfall velocity error caused by radar-pointing uncertainty is presented. The correction procedure is quite straightforward when the radar is observing a homogeneous rainfall field. When nonuniform beam filling (NUBF) occurs and attenuating frequencies are used, however, additional steps are necessary in order to correctly estimate the antenna-pointing direction. This new technique relies on the application of the combined frequency–time (CFT) algorithm to correct for uneven attenuation effects on the observed sea surface Doppler spectrum. The performance of this correction technique was evaluated by a Monte Carlo simulation of the Doppler precipitation radar backscatter from high-resolution 3D rain fields (either generated by a cloud resolving numerical model or retrieved from airborne radar measurements). The results show that the antenna-pointing-induced error can, indeed, be reduced by the proposed technique in order to achieve 1 m s−1 accuracy on rainfall vertical velocity estimates.

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Alessandro Battaglia
,
Satoru Kobayashi
,
Simone Tanelli
,
Clemens Simmer
, and
Eastwood Im

Abstract

In this paper, two different numerical methods capable of computing multiple scattering effects in pulsed-radar systems are compared. Both methods are based on the solution of the time-dependent vectorial form of the radiative transfer equation: one exploits the successive order of scattering approximation, the other a forward Monte Carlo technique.

Different benchmark results are presented (including layers of monodisperse spherical water and ice particles), which are of specific interest for W-band spaceborne cloud radars such as CloudSat’s or EarthCARE’s cloud profiling radars. Results demonstrate a good agreement between the two methods. The pros and cons of the two models are discussed, with a particular focus on the validity of the second order of scattering approximation.

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Alessandro Battaglia
,
Kamil Mroz
,
Simone Tanelli
,
Frederic Tridon
, and
Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter

Abstract

Evidence of multiple-scattering-induced pulse stretching for the signal of both frequencies of the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Observatory satellite is presented on the basis of collocated ground-based WSR-88D S-band observations of an extreme case: a tornadic supercell. The ground-based observations clearly show a tilted convective core with a so-called bounded weak-echo region—that is, locations where precipitation is absent or extremely light at the ground while large amounts of liquid or frozen precipitation are present aloft. The satellite observations in this region show reflectivity profiles that extend all the way to the surface despite the absence of near-surface precipitation: these are here referred to as “ghost echoes.” Furthermore, the Ku- and Ka-band profiles exhibit similar slopes, which is a typical sign that the observed power is almost entirely due to multiple scattering. A novel microphysical retrieval that is based on triple-frequency (S–Ku–Ka) observations shows that a dense ice core located between 4 and 14 km with particle sizes exceeding 2.5 cm and integrated ice contents exceeding 7.0 kg m−2 is the source of the ghost echoes of the signal in the lower layers. The level of confidence of this assessment is strengthened by the availability of the S-band data, which provide the necessary additional constraints to the radar retrieval that is based on DPR data. This study shows not only that multiple-scattering contributions may become predominant at Ka already very high up in the atmosphere but also that they play a key role at Ku band within the layers close to the surface. As a result, extreme caution must be paid even in the interpretation of Ku-based retrievals (e.g., the TRMM PR dataset or any DPR retrievals that are based on the assumption that Ku band is not affected by multiple scattering) when examining extreme surface rain rates that occur in the presence of deep dense ice layers.

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Alessandro Battaglia
,
Simone Tanelli
,
Gerald M. Heymsfield
, and
Lin Tian

Abstract

Deep convective systems observed by the High Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) radar during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign in Oklahoma provide the first evidence of multiple-scattering effects simultaneously at Ku and Ka band. One feature is novel and noteworthy: often, in correspondence to shafts with strong convection and when moving from the top of the cloud downward, the dual wavelength ratio (DWR) first increases as usual in KuKa-band observations, but then it reaches a maximum and after that point it steadily decreases all the way to the surface, forming what will be hereinafter referred to as a knee. This DWR knee cannot be reproduced by single-scattering theory under almost any plausible cloud microphysical profile. On the other hand, it is explained straightforwardly with the help of multiple-scattering theory when simulations involving hail-bearing convective cores with large horizontal extents are performed. The DWR reduction in the lower troposphere (i.e., DWR increasing with altitude) is interpreted as the result of multiple-scattering pulse stretching caused by the highly diffusive hail layer positioned high up in the atmosphere, with Ka multiple scattering typically exceeding that occurring in the Ku channel. Since the effects of multiple scattering increase with increasing footprint size, if multiple-scattering effects are present in the aircraft measurements, they are likely to be more pronounced in the spaceborne dual-frequency Ku–Ka radar observations, envisaged for the NASA–Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched in February 2014. This notional study supports the idea that DWR knees will be observed by the GPM radar when overflying high-density ice shafts embedded in large convective systems and suggests that their explanation must not be sought in differential attenuation or differential Mie effects but via multiple-scattering effects.

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Andrew M. Dzambo
,
Tristan L’Ecuyer
,
Ousmane O. Sy
, and
Simone Tanelli

Abstract

During the Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and Their Interactions (ORACLES) 2016 and 2017 field experiments, the Third Generation Advanced Precipitation and Cloud Radar (APR-3) flew aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft taking over 10 million profiles of stratocumulus clouds in the southeast Atlantic Ocean. This study documents cloud structure, precipitation frequency and intensity, and atmospheric stability for each flight during both field experiments. A larger cloud fraction was estimated for 2016, likely due to a larger estimated inversion strength (EIS) in the experiment area (between 6 and 10 K) compared to 2017 where EIS was on average 4–6 K lower. We used an optimal estimation retrieval to derive precipitation rates for all measurable clouds during both experiments. Over 30% of clouds observed during the 2016 experiment exhibited precipitation reaching the surface, but retrieved drizzle rates were below 0.01 mm h−1 in all but 40% of these profiles. This is in sharp contrast to the 2017 campaign where over 53% of precipitating profiles had rainfall rates larger than 0.01 mm h−1. The differences in cloud and rain fractions between the two years are most likely due to differences in the sampling environments; however, enough variations in cloud, virga, and rain fraction exist for similar environmental conditions such that additional analysis of cloud and aerosol interactions—specifically their effect on precipitation processes—needs further exploration. The extensive APR-3 sampling of drizzling stratocumulus under similar thermodynamic conditions provides a rich dataset for examining the influence of biomass burning aerosols on cloud fraction, morphology, and precipitation characteristics in this climatically important region.

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Simone Tanelli
,
Eastwood Im
,
Stephen L. Durden
,
Luca Facheris
, and
Dino Giuli

Abstract

Information on the global distribution of vertical velocity of precipitating particles is needed in estimating latent heat fluxes, and therefore in the general study of energy transportation phenomena in the atmosphere. Such information is not currently available, but it can potentially be obtained by a spaceborne Doppler precipitation radar. In this paper, the expected performance for this type of Doppler radar for measuring vertical rainfall velocity is investigated. Although the high relative speed of the instrument with respect to the rainfall droplets contributes significantly to the spreading of the Doppler spectrum, accurate estimates of the average vertical velocity can be obtained when the rainfall intensity does not vary significantly within the resolution volume of the instrument. Such a result can be inferred through theoretical calculations and is confirmed by analyzing the Doppler spectra simulated using data gathered by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne rain radar in the Kwajelein Experiment (KWAJEX) and in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). When significant variation in rain rate is present within the radar's field of view in the along-track direction, the Doppler shift caused by the radial component of the satellite motion is weighted differently in different portions of resolution cell. The error caused by this nonuniform beam-filling (NUBF) effect may dominate any other contribution. Under this condition, the shape, average value, and width of the Doppler spectrum do not directly correlate with the vertical velocity of the precipitating particles. Further analysis of the reflectivity pattern is required in order to correct for the NUBF-induced error.

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Francesca Viterbo
,
Jost von Hardenberg
,
Antonello Provenzale
,
Luca Molini
,
Antonio Parodi
,
Ousmane O. Sy
, and
Simone Tanelli

Abstract

Estimating the risk of flood-generating precipitation events in high-mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. Quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) at fine resolution are an essential ingredient to address this issue. Along these lines, the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, operated at 3.5-km grid spacing, to reproduce the extreme meteorological event that led to the 2010 Pakistan flood and produced heavy monsoonal rain in the Indus basin is explored. The model results are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates, the available ground measurements, and radar observations from the CloudSat mission. In particular, the sensitivity of the WRF simulations to the use of different convective closures (explicit and Kain–Fritsch) and microphysical parameterizations (WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme and Thompson) is analyzed. The impact of using different initial conditions, associated with a different initialization day, is also examined. The use of the new-generation Distributed Simulation and Stimulation System NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite radar simulator allows a more accurate and extensive representation of the mesoscale processes and of the interaction with the complex orography. The results reported here indicate that the quality of the large-scale initial conditions is a prominent factor affecting the possibility of retrieving a realistic representation of this event when using a nonhydrostatic regional model.

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