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Steven L. Edburg, Gene Allwine, Brian Lamb, David Stock, Harold Thistle, Holly Peterson, and Brian Strom

Abstract

Bark beetles kill millions of acres of trees in the United States annually by using chemical signaling to attack host trees en masse. As an attempt to control infestations, forest managers use synthetic semiochemical sources to attract beetles to traps and/or repel beetles from high-value resources such as trees and stands. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple numerical technique that may be used by forest managers as a guide in the placement of synthetic semiochemicals. The authors used a one-dimensional, one-equation turbulence model (klm) to drive a three-dimensional transport and dispersion model. Predictions were compared with observations from a unique tracer gas experiment conducted in a successively thinned loblolly pine canopy. Predictions of wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy compared well with observations. Scalar concentration was predicted well and trends of maximum observed concentration versus leaf area index were captured within 30 m of the release location. A hypothetical application of the numerical technique was conducted for a 12-day period to demonstrate the model’s usefulness to forest managers.

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Edward G. Patton, Thomas W. Horst, Peter P. Sullivan, Donald H. Lenschow, Steven P. Oncley, William O. J. Brown, Sean P. Burns, Alex B. Guenther, Andreas Held, Thomas Karl, Shane D. Mayor, Luciana V. Rizzo, Scott M. Spuler, Jielun Sun, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Eugene J. Allwine, Steven L. Edburg, Brian K. Lamb, Roni Avissar, Ronald J. Calhoun, Jan Kleissl, William J. Massman, Kyaw Tha Paw U, and Jeffrey C. Weil

The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) took place in spring 2007 and is the third in the series of Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) experiments. The HATS experiments have been instrumental in testing and developing subfilterscale (SFS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES) of planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. The CHATS campaign took place in a deciduous walnut orchard near Dixon, California, and was designed to examine the impacts of vegetation on SFS turbulence. Measurements were collected both prior to and following leafout to capture the impact of leaves on the turbulence, stratification, and scalar source/sink distribution. CHATS utilized crosswind arrays of fast-response instrumentation to investigate the impact of the canopy-imposed distribution of momentum extraction and scalar sources on SFS transport of momentum, energy, and three scalars. To directly test and link with PBL parameterizations of canopy-modified turbulent exchange, CHATS also included a 30-m profile tower instrumented with turbulence instrumentation, fast and slow chemical sensors, aerosol samplers, and radiation instrumentation. A highresolution scanning backscatter lidar characterized the turbulence structure above and within the canopy; a scanning Doppler lidar, mini sodar/radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and a new helicopter-observing platform provided details of the PBL-scale flow. Ultimately, the CHATS dataset will lead to improved parameterizations of energy and scalar transport to and from vegetation, which are a critical component of global and regional land, atmosphere, and chemical models. This manuscript presents an overview of the experiment, documents the regime sampled, and highlights some preliminary key findings.

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