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Wayne C. Bresky, Jaime M. Daniels, Andrew A. Bailey, and Steven T. Wanzong

Abstract

Comparisons between satellite-derived winds and collocated rawinsonde observations often show a pronounced slow speed bias at mid- and upper levels of the atmosphere. A leading cause of the slow speed bias is the improper assignment of the tracer to a height that is too high in the atmosphere. Height errors alone cannot fully explain the slow bias, however. Another factor influencing the speed bias is the size of the target window used in the tracking step. Tracking with a large target window can cause excessive averaging to occur and a smoothing of the instantaneous wind field. Conversely, if too small a window is specified, there is an increased risk of finding a false match. The authors have developed a new “nested tracking” approach that isolates the dominant local motion within a cloud scene and minimizes the smoothing of the motion estimate. A major advantage of the new approach is the ability to identify which pixels within the cloud scene are contributing to the tracking solution. Knowing which pixels contribute to the dominant motion allows for a more representative height to be derived, thereby directly linking the height assignment to the tracking process, which is an important goal for producers of global atmospheric motion vector (AMV) data. When compared with equivalent rawinsondes, the AMVs derived with the new approach show a considerable improvement in the speed bias and root-mean-square error over a control set of AMVs derived with more-conventional methods.

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Steven J. Nieman, W. Paul Menzei, Christopher M. Hayden, Donald Gray, Steven T. Wanzong, Christopher S. Velden, and Jaime Daniels

Cloud-drift winds have been produced from geostationary satellite data in the Western Hemisphere since the early 1970s. During the early years, winds were used as an aid for the short-term forecaster in an era when numerical forecasts were often of questionable quality, especially over oceanic regions. Increased computing resources over the last two decades have led to significant advances in the performance of numerical forecast models. As a result, continental forecasts now stand to gain little from the inspection or assimilation of cloud-drift wind fields. However, the oceanic data void remains, and although numerical forecasts in such areas have improved, they still suffer from a lack of in situ observations. During the same two decades, the quality of geostationary satellite data has improved considerably, and the cloud-drift wind production process has also benefited from increased computing power. As a result, fully automated wind production is now possible, yielding cloud-drift winds whose quality and quantity is sufficient to add useful information to numerical model forecasts in oceanic and coastal regions. This article will detail the automated cloud-drift wind production process, as operated by the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

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