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M. L. Khandekar
and
T. S. Murty

Abstract

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D. Fultz
and
T. S. Murty

Abstract

Systematic changes in the finite-amplitude vortex instability of axisymmetric elastoid-inertia oscillations in circular bodies of fluid with a quadratic law of depth are shown to occur depending on whether the depth increases or decreases radially. The instability is a new type that may have an essentially invicid mechanism and suggestions are made as to possible connections with atmospheric general circulation instability mechanisms. Phase speed measurements of certain observed propagating waves compared with several theoretical estimates suggest very strongly that they are Rossby waves excited by some conversion mechanism from the original inertia modes.

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Maurice Danard
and
T. S. Murty

Abstract

Trends in monthly precipitation, temperature, water equivalent of the snowpack, and streamflow are investigated for stations in three local areas in interior British Columbia of interest for hatching of salmon on the Adams River, Fraser River near Prince George, and Skeena River near Babine Lake.

In general, since the 1960s, cold season (October and January) precipitation has been decreasing, temperatures have been rising, snow water equivalents have been diminishing, and streamflows have been going down. However, the results may not necessarily be part of a global warming but may rather be an amplification of the common Pacific/North American pattern.

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Z. Kowalik
and
T. S. Murty

Abstract

The directional properties of tsunamis generated by circular and elongated sources are being studied by means of maximum amplitude contours. For the tsunami source located in the Gulf of Alaska along the Aleutian Islands, the main lobe of energy is directed towards the south and southeast. The time dependent tsunami signal over the shelf and at the open ocean depicts a considerable difference, probably a result of the shelf resonance. Coriolis effects are only noticeable over the shelf regions where the longer period tsunami waves are generated.

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G. E. Birchfield
and
T. S. Murty

Abstract

A numerical model of time-dependent wind-driven currents in Lakes Michigan and Huron is investigated. The dynamical model is for a homogeneous lake involving only vertical turbulent mixing. After reduction from 3 to 2 space dimensions the equations are mapped onto a plane in which the irregular basin is transformed into a series of connected rectangles; the equations are then written in finite-difference form for an equally spaced grid mesh on the new plane. Two numerical integrations are made. Comparison of the rate of generation of longshore transport between the model and observations is made; also comparison of the free modes of the model with observed and calculated oscillations of water level are made. The results indicate a feasible model for numerical integration over an irregular region involving a wide range of scales of motion.

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T. S. Murty
,
G. A. McBean
, and
B. McKee

Abstract

Data on explosively developing extratropical cyclones over the northeast portion of the Pacific Ocean have been compiled. A climatology of those events which deepened by 1 Bergeron (24 mb day−1 deepening at 60°N) or more is discussed. The maximum number of events occurred in October and the minimum number in August. The initial positions of such storms was most frequently in the area between 40 to 50°N and 140 to 170°W.

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Y. Sadhuram
,
T. V. Ramana Murthy
,
Y. V. B. Sarma
, and
V. S. N. Murty
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AIRS

Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases

MOUSTAFA T. CHAHINE
,
THOMAS S. PAGANO
,
HARTMUT H. AUMANN
,
ROBERT ATLAS
,
CHRISTOPHER BARNET
,
JOHN BLAISDELL
,
LUKE CHEN
,
MURTY DIVAKARLA
,
ERIC J. FETZER
,
MITCH GOLDBERG
,
CATHERINE GAUTIER
,
STEPHANIE GRANGER
,
SCOTT HANNON
,
FREDRICK W. IRION
,
RAMESH KAKAR
,
EUGENIA KALNAY
,
BJORN H. LAMBRIGTSEN
,
SUNG-YUNG LEE
,
JOHN Le MARSHALL
,
W. WALLACE MCMILLAN
,
LARRY MCMILLIN
,
EDWARD T. OLSEN
,
HENRY REVERCOMB
,
PHILIP ROSENKRANZ
,
WILLIAM L. SMITH
,
DAVID STAELIN
,
L. LARRABEE STROW
,
JOEL SUSSKIND
,
DAVID TOBIN
,
WALTER WOLF
, and
LIHANG ZHOU

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its two companion microwave sounders, AMSU and HSB were launched into polar orbit onboard the NASA Aqua Satellite in May 2002. NASA required the sounding system to provide high-quality research data for climate studies and to meet NOAA's requirements for improving operational weather forecasting. The NOAA requirement translated into global retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles with accuracies approaching those of radiosondes. AIRS also provides new measurements of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O3, SO2, and aerosols.

The assimilation of AIRS data into operational weather forecasting has already demonstrated significant improvements in global forecast skill. At NOAA/NCEP, the improvement in the forecast skill achieved at 6 days is equivalent to gaining an extension of forecast capability of six hours. This improvement is quite significant when compared to other forecast improvements over the last decade. In addition to NCEP, ECMWF and the Met Office have also reported positive forecast impacts due AIRS.

AIRS is a hyperspectral sounder with 2,378 infrared channels between 3.7 and 15.4 μm. NOAA/NESDIS routinely distributes AIRS data within 3 hours to NWP centers around the world. The AIRS design represents a breakthrough in infrared space instrumentation with measurement stability and accuracies far surpassing any current research or operational sounder..The results we describe in this paper are “work in progress,” and although significant accomplishments have already been made much more work remains in order to realize the full potential of this suite of instruments.

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